Cellular injury, adaption, & death

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Cellular injury, adaption, & death by Mind Map: Cellular injury, adaption, & death

1. causes of cellular injury

1.1. reversible injury

1.1.1. hypoxia

1.1.1.1. inadequate tissue oxygenation

1.1.1.1.1. reduce blood flow

1.1.1.1.2. reduced O2 saturation

1.1.1.2. cell with high metabolic demand

1.1.1.2.1. brain

1.1.1.2.2. myocardium

1.1.1.3. consequences

1.1.1.3.1. decr. oxidative phosphorylation

1.1.2. cell membrane injury

1.1.3. hydrodynamics

1.1.3.1. maintains homeostasis

1.1.3.1.1. disrupted cause → apoptosis

1.2. oxidative stress ( free radicals)

1.2.1. damage by free radicals

1.2.1.1. OH

1.2.1.2. superoxide Anioin ( O2)

1.2.1.3. H2O2

1.2.2. sources

1.2.2.1. Endogenous

1.2.2.1.1. metabolic enzymatioc rxn

1.2.2.1.2. metal cations

1.2.2.1.3. inflammatory dz.

1.2.2.1.4. neoplastic dz.

1.2.2.2. exogenous

1.2.2.2.1. chemicals

1.2.2.2.2. drugs

1.2.2.2.3. toxins

1.2.2.2.4. radiation

1.2.2.2.5. tissue trauma

1.2.3. consequences

1.2.3.1. image to lipids /proteins & DNA

1.2.3.2. chronic tissue damage & dz.

1.2.3.3. organ failure

1.2.4. defense mechanism

1.2.4.1. superoxide (SOD)

1.2.4.1.1. catalyzes superoxide radical → O2 or H2O2

1.2.4.2. Catalase

1.2.4.2.1. conversion of H202 → O2 & H2O

1.2.4.3. Glutathione perioxdase

1.2.4.3.1. conversion of lipid hydroperoxides → Alcohols & reduce to H2O2→ H2O

1.2.4.4. Vit. E

1.2.4.4.1. neutralize free radicals

1.2.4.5. Selenium

1.2.4.5.1. cofactor for enzyme: glutathione peroxidase / ascorbate , ceuroloplasmin, transferrin, cysteine

1.2.5. oxidative injury

1.2.5.1. chronic injury

1.2.5.1.1. optimize cellular funct.

1.2.5.2. acute injury

1.2.5.2.1. Nutritional myopathy

1.3. physical agents

1.3.1. types

1.3.1.1. trauma

1.3.1.1.1. direct cell death & loss of blood supply

1.3.1.2. extreme cold

1.3.1.2.1. impair blood flow & cause ice formaton

1.3.1.3. extreme heat

1.3.1.3.1. denatures proteins & damages membranes

1.3.1.4. electricity

1.3.1.4.1. generative extreme heat & alters condition

1.3.1.5. ionizing radiation

1.3.1.5.1. free radical formation

1.3.1.6. radiation

1.3.1.6.1. DNA damage

1.4. irreversible

1.4.1. necrosis

1.4.1.1. oncotic necrosis

1.4.1.1.1. cell swelling beyond point of no return

1.4.1.2. coagulative necrosis

1.4.1.2.1. caused by ischemic injury

1.4.1.3. caseation necrosis -TQ

1.4.1.3.1. caused by chronic inflammation

1.4.1.4. liquefactive necrosis

1.4.1.4.1. encephlomalacia

1.4.1.4.2. suppurative inflam.

1.4.1.5. gangrenous necrosis

1.4.1.5.1. dry gangrene

1.4.1.5.2. moist gangrene

1.4.1.5.3. gas gangrene

1.4.1.6. Epithelium

1.4.1.6.1. ulceration

1.4.1.6.2. erosioni

1.4.1.7. fat

1.4.1.7.1. enzymatic necrosis of fat

1.4.1.7.2. traumatic necrosis of fat

1.4.1.7.3. abdominal fat necrosis of cattle

1.4.1.8. sequences

1.4.1.8.1. necrosis

1.4.2. apoptosis

1.4.2.1. programmed cell death

1.4.2.2. cellular shrinkage

1.4.2.3. No iniflammtiion assoc.

1.4.2.4. Morphology

1.4.2.4.1. condensation of chromatin

1.4.2.4.2. condensation of cytoplasm

1.4.2.4.3. Apoptotic bodies

1.4.3. postmortem autolysis

1.4.4. chronic injury & cellular adaptation

1.4.4.1. autophagocytosis

1.4.4.2. changes in

1.4.4.2.1. cell size

1.4.4.2.2. number

1.4.4.2.3. appearance

2. Hyperplasia- TQ

3. Metaplasia

4. Metaplasia

5. Hypertrophy a

6. ATrophy