Intro to Psych

Intro to Psych

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Intro to Psych by Mind Map: Intro to Psych

1. Research Designs

1.1. Experimental

1.1.1. IV is deliberately manipulated by the research

1.1.2. Control group and Experimental group

1.1.3. Random Allocation Minimise the effect of participant variables

1.1.4. Have greater control over extraeous variables particularly situational.

1.1.5. If performed in a laboratory, conditions are more artificial, decreases external validity and makes less valid

1.2. Quantitative Observational

1.2.1. No random allocation

1.2.2. The IV changes naturally or is observed naturally (pre-existing, and the data is numerical.

1.2.3. Allows variables (behaviours) to be investigated that would be unethical, impossible or too costly under an experimental design

1.2.4. Increased external validty

1.2.5. Less ‘cause and effect’, due to lack of random allocation

1.3. Qualitative

1.3.1. The IV changes naturally or is observed naturally, and the data is non-numerical data (Qualitative data), uses focus group or Delphi technique.

1.3.2. Examples of gathering results are focus groups, interviews and the Delphi technique

1.3.3. Understands and explains the nature of the research interest.

1.3.4. Greater effort per participant (more time, money and resources)

2. Method of Assessment

2.1. Objective Quantitative

2.1.1. Involves collecting numerical data using objective methods

2.1.2. Heart rate, Blood pressure, Naplan, Brainwave activity, Skin conductivity

2.2. Subjective Quantitative

2.2.1. Involves collecting numerical data using self-report, subjective methods

2.2.2. Self-report rating scale

2.3. Subjective Qualitative

2.3.1. Involves collecting word/picture/non-numerical data using subjective methods

2.3.2. Delphi Technique Therapy, Self report written questionnaire, Focus group.

3. Variables

3.1. Idependant Variable: variable controlled in the experiment. Goes on X axis.

3.2. Dependant Variable: variable measured in experiment. Goes on the Y axis.

3.3. Controlled Variable

3.4. Extraneous Variables

4. Validity

4.1. Refers to the ability of a test to measure what it is supposed to.

4.2. External Validity - refers to whether or not the results obtained in the study are ‘valid’ in the real world.

4.3. Internal Validity - refers to how well an experiment is done, especially whether it avoids confounding. The less chance for confounding in a study, the higher its internal validity is.

5. Data Types

5.1. Quantitative: numerical data. e.g. heart rate, height, shoe size.

5.2. Qualitative: non-numerical data. e.g. pictures, images, drawings.

5.3. Subjective: is information from the client's point of view, including feelings, perceptions, and concerns obtained through interviews. Cannot be verified and contains bias.

5.4. Objective: is observable and measurable data obtained through observation, physical examination, and laboratory and diagnostic testing. Can be verified

6. 4 Levels of Explanation

6.1. Biological: brain stuctures, physiological responses, hormones, neurotransmitters, altered state of awareness, drug effects, genetic inheritance.

6.2. Person: individual differences, likes/dislikes, presonality types/traits, intelligence, socioeconomic class, mental health issues.

6.3. Basic: cognition, learning methods, Learned behaviour, perception, motivation, interpretation, emotions, attention.

6.4. Socio-Cultural: environment, family members, friends and interactions, peer pressure, audience, religion, culture, ethnicity.

7. Statistics

7.1. Standard Deviation: A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be close to the mean (also called the expected value) of the set, while a high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a wider range of values.

7.2. IQR: represents the middle 50% of the data.