Ellis 2006 pg 98 - 103

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Ellis 2006 pg 98 - 103 by Mind Map: Ellis 2006 pg 98 - 103

1. Is There A Best Way To Teach Grammar For Implicit Knowledge?

1.1. Identify instructional options:

1.1.1. Difference b/w: Input-based Acquisition happens because learners comprehend & process input Draw learners' attention to targeted structure by: Production-based instructions skill-building theory sociocultural theory of L2 learning: learning takes place due to social interaction --> scaffolds learner's attempts at new producing grammatical structures Which is more effective? VanPatten's Input processing instruction: help learners overcome default processing strategies that are pertinent in interlanguaging (interference) In reality, comparison is meaningless in the classroom: One students' output = another students' input both options result in acquisition

1.1.2. Difference b/w different types of corrective feedback Level of explicitness Implicit Explicit Which is more effective? Input or Output based Input-based Output-based Which is more effective?

2. Conclusion

2.1. The traditional approach to teaching grammar based on explicit explanations and drill-like practice may not result in the acquisition of the implicit knowledge needed for fluent and accurate communication

2.2. However, there is disagreement on what should replace explicit teaching. It is important to recognise the variety of approaches available to teaching grammar and understand the theoretical as well as problems behind these approaches.

2.3. Some of the beliefs in the variety of approaches toward grammar teaching:

2.3.1. Focus on meanings and uses of different grammatical structures instead of just teaching the form.

2.3.2. Teachers to focus on grammatical structures that are problematic to learners.

2.3.3. Grammar teaching through corrective feedback can be adopted when learners are able to use the language productively.

2.3.4. Teaching explicit grammar could assist subsequent acquisition of implicit knowledge. In the case, both a focus-on-forms (differentiated approaching involving both deductive and inductive instruction) and focus-on-form approach may work best Focus on forms can be valid as long as learners get to practise behaviour in communicative tasks Focus-on-form allows for extensive treatment of grammatical problems (unlike focus-on-forms) Grammar instruction should take the form of separate grammar lessons (a focus-on-forms approach) and should also be integrated into communicative activities (a focus on-form approach)

2.3.5. Corrective feedback is best conducted using a mixture of implicit and explicit feedback types that are both input and output based.

2.4. There is a need for more research that addresses to what extent and in what ways grammar instruction results in implicit knowledge. Another need is for longitudinal studies that investigate the effects of instruction over time. Longitudinal studies that employ qualitative as well as quantitative methods will help to show not just if there is a delayed effect for instruction but also its accumulative effect.

3. Should Grammar be taught in separate lessons or integrated into communicative activities?

3.1. Separate lessons

3.1.1. focus on forms: primary focus is on form (accuracy), directed intensively on single grammatical structure. Teaches explicit knowledge and subsequently proceduralising it thorugh drills and tasks that involves meaning.

3.2. Communicative activities

3.2.1. focus on form: Focus on meaning, best equipped to promote interlanguage development because acquisition of implicit knowledge occurs as a result of attending to linguistic forms while understanding & producing meaningful messages Intensive: Planned lessons (predetermined) with focused task eliciting occasions for using a predetermined grammatical structure extensive: Incidental lessons, occurring in accordance to students' linguistic needs. Likely that attention will be given to a wide variety of grammatical structures.