Foundations of Psychology

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
Foundations of Psychology by Mind Map: Foundations of Psychology

1. Determining function by destroying/removing part of the brain and observing what happens

2. Zeitgeist

2.1. The defining spirit or mood of a particular period of history as shown by the ideas and beliefs of the time.

2.2. 17th and 18th Century

2.2.1. Reflected machines in daily use

2.2.1.1. Universe = giant machine

2.2.1.2. Machines mimic human action

2.2.1.3. Automata

2.2.1.4. Calculating engine

2.2.2. Scientific method

2.2.2.1. 1. Observation

2.2.2.2. 2. Experimentation

2.2.2.3. Measurement

2.2.3. Clockwork universe

2.2.3.1. Voltaire

2.2.3.1.1. Pooping duck

3. Antiquity

3.1. Plato

3.1.1. Innate dispositions

3.1.2. "The Cave"

3.1.2.1. Not all learning comes from the senses

3.1.2.1.1. Can be misinformed by your senses

3.1.2.2. Objective learning = important

3.1.2.2.1. Measurement

3.1.2.2.2. Deductive reasoning

3.2. Aristotle

3.2.1. Mind located in the heart

3.2.1.1. Locus of the mind

3.2.2. Blank slate

3.2.2.1. Emphasis on experience

3.3. Augustine

3.3.1. Senses aren't a source of truth

3.3.2. Subjective basis for introspection

3.3.3. Divine revelation

3.4. Thomas Aquinas

3.4.1. Scholasticism

3.4.1.1. Human reasoning = complementary to faith

3.5. Socrates

3.5.1. Founder of rationalism

3.5.2. No absolute truth

3.5.2.1. Truth must be acquired through the Socratic method

3.5.2.1.1. Asking a series of Qs designed to lead people to truth

4. Renaissance

4.1. Rene Descartes

4.1.1. Mind-body problem

4.1.1.1. Separation between mind and body

4.1.1.1.1. Psychology deals with the mental. spiritual world

4.1.1.1.2. Physiology deals with the bodily or sensory aspects of the physical world

4.1.1.2. Mechanistic

4.1.2. Doctrine of Ideas

4.1.2.1. 1. Innate ideas*

4.1.2.1.1. Inborn; do not require experience

4.1.2.2. 2. Derived Ideas

4.1.2.2.1. Arise from experience

4.1.3. Nature of Body

4.1.3.1. Body = matter

4.1.3.2. Body = machine

4.1.3.3. Involuntary Movements

4.1.3.3.1. Not determined by conscious will

4.1.3.3.2. Theory of reflex action

4.1.3.4. Human behavior is predictable

4.1.4. Sought to build new field of philosophy from ground up

4.1.5. "I think therefore I am"

4.2. Copernicus

4.2.1. Heliocentric model of the universe

4.3. Isaac Newton

4.3.1. Physics

4.3.1.1. Early conceptions of consciousness

4.4. Julien de La Metrie

4.4.1. Man as machine

4.4.2. Humans have perfect rationality

4.5. Galileo Galilee

4.5.1. Pioneer experimenter

4.5.1.1. Controlled certain variables while manipulating and measuring others

4.5.1.1.1. Experimental method

5. Enlightenment

5.1. John Locke

5.1.1. Theory of Association

5.1.1.1. Association = learning

5.1.2. Emphasis on experience

5.1.2.1. Tabula Rasa

5.1.2.2. Derived ideas

5.1.3. 1. Sensations

5.1.3.1. Input from external physical objects experienced as sense impressions to produce ideas

5.1.3.2. Precede reflections

5.1.4. 2. Reflections

5.1.4.1. Mind operates on the sense impressions to produce ideas

5.1.5. Primary Qualities

5.1.5.1. Objective

5.1.5.2. Perceived

5.1.6. Secondary Qualities

5.1.6.1. Subjective

5.1.6.2. Experienced

5.2. Rise of British Associationism

5.2.1. Nativism

5.2.1.1. Immanuel Kant

5.2.1.1.1. Counterpoint to the enlightenment thinkers

5.2.1.1.2. Mind = dynamic

5.2.1.1.3. Innate predispositions toward the environment

5.2.1.1.4. Pure Reason

5.2.1.2. Leibnitz

5.2.1.2.1. Eternal inborn traits (Innate intellect)

5.2.1.2.2. Disagreed with the idea of a blank slate

5.2.1.2.3. While Locke said nothing is in the intellect which was not first in the senses, Leibniz said nothing is there but intellect itself

5.2.1.2.4. Mind is not a blank slate but a block of veined marble (the shape gets sculpted but was already there to begin with)

5.2.2. Empiricism

5.2.2.1. George Berkley

5.2.2.1.1. Perception is the only reality

5.2.2.1.2. Mentalism

5.2.2.1.3. Knowledge is constructed from simple ideas held together by associations

5.2.2.2. David Hume

5.2.2.2.1. Impressions

5.2.2.2.2. Ideas

5.2.2.2.3. Laws of Association

5.2.2.3. All knowledge is derived from sensory experience

5.2.3. David Hartley

5.2.3.1. Association by contiguity

5.2.3.1.1. Explains memory, reasoning, emotion, voluntary and involuntary actions

5.2.3.2. Influence of mechanism

5.2.3.3. Biology, medical man and science focused

5.2.3.4. Mind and body are related biologically

5.2.3.5. Localized mental faculties

5.2.3.6. Associations are basic to all ideas

5.2.4. Materialism

5.2.4.1. Considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter

5.2.5. Positivism

5.2.5.1. Recognizes only natural phenomenon or facts that are objectively observable

5.2.6. James Mill

5.2.6.1. Mind = machine

5.2.6.1.1. Goal: destroy subjective and psychic activities

5.2.6.1.2. Mechanistic

5.3. John Stuart Mill

5.3.1. Active associations

5.3.1.1. The mental processes that act upon environmental stimuli, justifying the need for a mind construct within Locke's model

5.3.2. Mental Chemistry

5.3.2.1. Analysis = key

5.3.2.2. Possible to study mind scientifically

6. New Psychology

6.1. Experimental Psychology

6.1.1. Wilhelm Wundt

6.1.1.1. "Founder of Psychology"

6.1.1.1.1. 1st laboratory

6.1.1.1.2. Determined to establish a new discipline

6.1.1.2. Experimental Method/Empirical Science

6.1.1.2.1. Physiological = experiemental

6.1.1.3. Psychology =

6.1.1.3.1. Social

6.1.1.3.2. Experimental

6.1.1.4. Consciousness

6.1.1.4.1. Related to associationism

6.1.1.4.2. Reductionism

6.1.1.5. Introspection

6.1.1.5.1. Observation of conscious experience

6.1.2. Voluntarism

6.1.2.1. Volition; will

6.1.2.2. Power of the will to organize mental contents inter higher-level processing

6.1.2.3. Emphasis on activity rather than elements

6.1.3. E.B. Titchener

6.1.3.1. Instrumentation Psychology

6.1.3.1.1. Breaking concepts down to its most basic components

6.1.3.2. Structuralism

6.1.3.2.1. Emphasis on elements

6.1.4. Gustav Fechner

6.1.4.1. Understanding the relationship between the physical world and one's perception of it

6.1.4.2. Attempted to measure the limits of people's perception of the physical world

6.1.4.2.1. Threshold

6.1.4.2.2. Breaking point between perceiving and not perceiving

6.1.4.2.3. Reliability of senses

6.1.4.3. Naive Realism

6.1.4.3.1. Perception does not equal reality

6.1.4.4. Psychophysics

6.1.4.4.1. Thresholds

6.1.4.4.2. Phenomenological Method

6.1.4.4.3. Recognition

6.1.4.4.4. Detection

6.1.4.4.5. Magnitude estimation

6.1.4.4.6. Searching

6.1.4.5. Originator of psychology

6.1.5. Herman Von Helmholtz

6.1.5.1. Neural Impulse

6.1.5.1.1. 1st empirical measurement of the rate of neural impulse conduction

6.1.5.2. Vision

6.1.5.2.1. Internal eye muscles focus lens

6.1.5.2.2. Revised theory of color vision

6.1.5.3. Audition

6.1.5.3.1. Perception of tones

6.1.5.3.2. Nature of harmony and discord

6.1.5.3.3. Problem of resonance

6.1.5.4. Thought and movement = successive, not simultaneous

6.2. Antecedents to Functionalism

6.2.1. Darwin

6.2.1.1. Theory of Natural Selection

6.2.2. Galton

6.3. Physiology

6.3.1. Experimentally-oriented

6.3.2. Marshall Hall

6.3.2.1. Different levels of movement (nervous system)

6.3.2.1.1. Voluntary

6.3.2.1.2. Reflex

6.3.2.1.3. Involuntary

6.3.3. Pierre Flourens

6.3.3.1. Used Extirpation

6.3.3.1.1. Higher mental processes

6.3.3.1.2. Visual and auditory reflexes

6.3.4. Paul Broca

6.3.4.1. Clinical method

6.3.4.2. Broca's Area

6.3.4.2.1. Speech center

6.3.5. Gustav Fritsch and Eduard HItzig

6.3.5.1. Electrical stimulation to observe motor responses

6.3.6. Franz Josef Gall

6.3.6.1. Mapping of the brain

6.3.6.1.1. Brain size = important

6.3.6.2. Phrenology

6.3.7. Luigi Galvani

6.3.7.1. Nerve impulses = electrical

6.3.7.2. Nervous system = conductor of electrical impulses

6.3.7.3. Nervous system = conductor of electrical impulses

6.3.8. Santiago Ramon y Cajal

6.3.8.1. Direction of travel for brain and spinal cord nerve impulses