Translation Studies

Translation Studies

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Translation Studies by Mind Map: Translation Studies

1. References

1.1. *MA Translation Studies at the University of Exeter. A programme that provides a rigorous foundation in the academic field of Translation Studies, and an excellent professional training for careers in the language services industry. *Espadas E. (2016) In memoriam Gideon Toury, pioneer of Descriptive Translation Studies. Available in 
In memoriam Gideon Toury, pioneer of Descriptive Translation Studies *Burrow-Goldhahn (2018) The importance of translation studies. Available at

2. Types of translation

2.1. Written Translation

2.2. Oral Translation

2.3. Semiotics

2.3.1. Intralingual

2.3.2. Interlingual

2.3.3. Intersemiotic

3. Importance

3.1. Effective Communication

3.1.1. "Language is much more than the communication of words. It is also an expression of culture, society, and belief." Burrow-Goldhahn (2018) "The importance of translation studies."

3.1.2. Platforms such as TED Talks and Netfix run open translation projects that allow people around the world to understand their content. Translation is necessary for the spread of information, knowledge, and ideas.

3.2. Demand for general and analytical instruments such as databases, encyclopedias ect.

3.2.1. Wordreference.

3.3. Global economy; companies can take profit from working overseas. For instance lower production cost and services.

3.3.1. A clear example is the millionaire industry of Bitcoin.

4. Definition

4.1. Translation Studies is the field of study that deals with the theory, description, and application of translation. ak609 (2018)

5. History

5.1. The study of translation as an academic subject began in the second half of the twentieth century.

5.1.1. It was James Holmes who has as early as in 1972 presented his ideas on "The Name and Nature of Translation Studies".

5.1.2. Gideon Toury alongwith Eugene Nida, converted translation into an object of scientific study, and into a discipline in its own right, deserving of rigorous research. Among his most important contributions is the study of translation from a descriptive perspective. "The Nature and Role of Norms in Translation"

6. Main Objectives

6.1. To establish general principles by means of which these phenomena can be explained and predicted.

6.2. To describe the phenomena of translating and translation as they manifest themselves.