Older Adult Client

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Older Adult Client by Mind Map: Older Adult Client

1. Sleep

1.1. More time in stage I and II sleep

1.2. Sleep less soundly

1.3. Delay in onset of sleep

1.4. Impacted by noise and sound

1.5. Increased body temp, cortisol levels, and blood pressure during the day

1.6. Increased melatonin, growth hormone, and prolactin

1.7. Moss heart attacks happen in early morning

1.8. Temperature spikes in the evening

1.9. Insomnia

1.9.1. Difficulty falling or staying asleep or prematurely waking

1.9.2. Short term

1.9.2.1. Change in environment

1.9.2.2. Illness

1.9.2.3. Stress

1.9.3. Chronic

1.9.3.1. 3 weeks or more

1.9.3.2. Physical or mental illness

1.9.3.3. Substance abuse

1.9.3.4. Medications

1.10. Nocturnal myoclonus

1.10.1. Jerking legs during sleep

1.10.2. 5 or more times in an hour

1.10.3. Causes

1.10.3.1. Tricyclics antidepressants

1.10.3.2. Renal failure

1.11. Restless leg syndromes

1.11.1. Neurological urge to move legs

1.11.2. Associated with

1.11.2.1. Iron deficiency anemia

1.11.2.2. Uremia

1.11.2.3. Parkinson’s

1.11.2.4. RA

1.11.2.5. Diabetes

1.11.2.6. Neurological lesions

1.12. Sleep apnea

1.12.1. 5 episodes of cessation of breathing lasting 10 seconds

1.12.2. Central sleep apnea

1.12.2.1. Disorder in central nervous system affecting diaphragm

1.12.3. Obstructive sleep apnea

1.12.3.1. Obstruction in airway

1.12.4. Evaluation at sleep clinic

1.12.5. Sleep in supine position should be avoided

1.13. Medical conditions affecting health

1.13.1. Chronic disease

1.13.2. Respiratory problems

1.13.3. CV problems

1.13.4. Diabetes

1.13.5. GERD

1.13.6. Dementiad

1.13.7. Depression

1.14. Drugs that affect sleep

1.14.1. Anticholinergics

1.14.2. Antidepressants

1.14.3. Antihypertensives

1.14.4. Benzodiazepines

1.14.5. Beta blockers

1.14.6. Diuretics

1.14.7. Levodopa

1.14.8. Steroids

1.14.9. Caffeinea

1.14.10. Alcohol

2. Nutrition

2.1. Reduced need for calories

2.2. Decreased lean body mass

2.3. Basal metabolic rate declines

2.4. Protein needs to be 10-20% of calories

2.5. Calcium absorption decreases

2.6. 5 servings of fruits and vegetables

2.7. Avoidance of trans fats

2.8. Supplements do not make up for intake of nutrients

2.9. Threats to good nutrition

2.9.1. Food intolerance

2.9.2. Anorexia

2.9.3. Dysphasia

2.9.4. Constipation

2.9.5. Malnutrition

2.10. Exercise

2.10.1. 150 activity per week

2.10.2. Strength exercises 2 or more daysbe

2.10.3. Benefit every area of your life

3. Integumentary System Health

3.1. Changes of Aging

3.1.1. Decreased skin elasticity

3.1.2. Dry skin

3.1.3. Decreased subcutaneous fat

3.1.4. Increased skin neoplasms

3.1.5. Gray hair

3.1.6. Reduced sweat glands

3.2. Education

3.3. Nursing diagnosis

3.4. Skin cancer

3.5. Keratosis

3.6. Pruritis

4. Hydration

4.1. Vital

4.2. Regulates body temperature

4.3. Protects internal organs

4.4. Intracellular fluid lost

4.5. 1500 ml minimal required fluid intake

4.6. Over hydration

5. Health education

5.1. 9/10 Americans have limited health literacy skills

5.1.1. Health information accessible to the public needs to be made easier to read and understand for the general population

5.2. More Americans use the internet for health information but the older population has issues related to vision and hearing that can affect this

5.2.1. Online sources need

5.2.1.1. Clearly written content

5.2.1.2. Accessible content

5.2.1.3. Uncluttered websites

5.2.1.4. Usability of the websitec

5.2.1.5. Clean layouts

6. Pain

6.1. Greatest threat to comfort

6.2. Unpleasant sensory or emotional experience

6.3. Predominant in older population

6.3.1. Low back pain most commonthr

6.3.2. Thresholds are different

6.4. Types of pain

6.4.1. Nociceptive

6.4.1.1. Mechanical thermal chemical

6.4.1.2. Somatic

6.4.1.2.1. Bone or soft tissuel

6.4.1.2.2. calizedtho

6.4.1.2.3. Throbbing

6.4.1.2.4. aching

6.4.1.3. Visceral

6.4.1.3.1. Cause generalized or referred pain

6.4.1.3.2. Deepa

6.4.1.3.3. Aching

6.4.2. Neuropathic

6.4.2.1. Abnormal processing of sensory stimuli by CNS or PNS

6.4.2.2. Sharp stabbing tingling o

6.4.2.3. Onset is high intensity

6.5. Pain perception

6.5.1. Role in age is unclear

6.5.2. Research is limited

6.5.3. Complicated by chronic disease

6.5.4. Unique pain experience

6.6. Effects of pain

6.6.1. Limited mobility

6.6.2. Pressure ulcers

6.6.3. Pneumonia

6.6.4. Constipation

6.6.5. Poor appetite

6.6.6. Depression

6.6.7. Hopelessness

6.6.8. Spiritual distress

6.7. Pain assessment

6.7.1. Qualitative and quantitative assessment

6.7.2. Detailed pain history

6.7.3. Numeric rating scale

6.7.4. Visual scale

6.7.5. Questionnaire

6.8. Complementary therapies

6.8.1. Acupuncture

6.8.2. Aromatherapy

6.8.3. Biofeedback

6.8.4. Exercise

6.8.5. Herbals

6.8.6. Prayery

6.8.7. Yoga

6.9. Medications

6.9.1. Risk of adverse effects high

6.9.2. Analgesics monitored closely

6.9.3. Trial nonopiods first

6.9.4. Use narcotics cautiously

6.10. Foods to avoid

6.10.1. High fat dairy products

6.10.2. Egg yolks

6.10.3. Beef fat

6.10.4. Corn

6.10.5. Soybean

6.10.6. Sugars

7. Sexuality/Intimacy

7.1. Attitudes towards sex in older adult

7.1.1. Stereotypes

7.1.2. Violations of older adults sexual identity

7.2. Menopause

7.2.1. Permanent cessation of menses

7.2.2. Awakening of body mind and spirit

7.2.3. Hormone therapy

7.2.3.1. Estrogen and progesterone increase heart risks

7.2.3.2. Age at start alters risk

7.2.3.3. Individual decision for treatment

7.2.4. Self acceptance

7.2.4.1. Care for self

7.2.4.2. Broaden perspectives

7.3. Andropause

7.3.1. Testosterone levels decline

7.3.2. Does not happen in all men

7.3.3. Reduced muscle mass

7.4. Intimacy

7.4.1. Love

7.4.2. Warmth

7.4.3. Carings

7.4.4. Sharing

7.4.5. Intimate exchange of words and touch

7.4.6. Feeling important and wanted

7.5. Barriers to sexual activity

7.5.1. Physical pathology

7.5.2. Lack of partner

7.5.2.1. Particularly for older women

7.5.2.2. Most older men are married and older women are widowed

7.5.3. Psychological barriers

7.5.3.1. Negative attitudes from society

7.5.3.2. Fear

7.5.3.3. Body image

7.5.3.4. Relationship issues

7.5.4. Cognitive impairment

7.5.4.1. Dementia

7.5.4.2. Touching may be misinterpreted

7.5.4.3. Explain to family

7.6. Healthy sexual function

7.6.1. Basic education

7.6.2. Nurse openly discusses sex

7.6.3. Masturbation beneficial

7.6.4. Foster positive attitudes

8. Reproductive system health

8.1. Changes of Aging

8.1.1. Female

8.1.1.1. Vulva atrophies

8.1.1.2. Flattening of the labia

8.1.1.3. Vaginal epithelium thins

8.1.1.4. Cervix,uterus, Fallopian tubes atrophies

8.1.1.5. Reduction in collagen

8.1.1.6. Less lubrication

8.1.1.7. More alkaline vaginal pH

8.1.1.8. Uterus decrease in size

8.1.2. Male

8.1.2.1. Decreased capacity to retain fluids

8.1.2.2. Atrophy of testes

8.1.2.3. Decreased testicular mass

8.1.2.4. Less live sperm

8.1.2.5. More time required to achieve an erection

8.1.2.6. Enlargement of prostate

8.2. Education

8.2.1. Annual gynological exam

8.2.2. Breast self exam

8.2.3. Monitor PSA

8.2.4. Testicular self exam

8.2.5. Complete history and physical exam

8.3. Nursing diagnoses

8.3.1. Anxiety

8.3.2. Acute pain

8.3.3. Risk for infection

8.3.4. Disturbed body image

8.3.5. Impaired skin integrity

8.4. Senile vulvitis

8.4.1. Thinning drying and agitation of the vaginal walls

8.4.2. Causes

8.4.2.1. Postmenopausal

8.4.2.2. Decrease in estrogen

8.4.3. Symptoms

8.4.3.1. Soreness

8.4.3.2. pruritis

8.4.3.3. Burning

8.4.3.4. Foul smelling discharge

8.4.3.5. Bleeding

8.4.4. Treatment

8.4.4.1. Good hygeine

8.4.4.2. Suppository cream

8.4.4.3. Wear cotton underwear

8.4.4.4. Avoid perfumed soap

8.4.4.5. Use lube for sex

8.5. Tumors of the vulva

8.5.1. Occurs on the outer surface of the female genitals

8.5.2. Symptoms

8.5.2.1. Lump or sore

8.5.2.2. Itching

8.5.3. Diagnosis

8.5.3.1. Biopsy

8.5.4. Treatment

8.5.4.1. Skin grafting

8.5.4.2. Lymph node dissection

8.5.4.3. Radiation

8.5.4.4. Supportive

8.6. Perineal herniation

8.6.1. Stretching and tearing of muscle and muscle weakness

8.6.2. Types

8.6.2.1. Cystocele

8.6.2.2. Rectocele

8.6.2.3. Prolapsed uterus

8.6.3. Symptoms

8.6.3.1. Lower back pain

8.6.3.2. Pelvic heaviness

8.6.3.3. Pulling sensation

8.6.4. Diagnosis

8.6.4.1. Palpate mass in vagina

8.6.5. Treatment

8.6.5.1. Surgical repair

8.7. Erectile dysfunction

8.7.1. Problem affecting most men over 70

8.7.2. Causes

8.7.2.1. Alcoholism

8.7.2.2. Diabetes

8.7.2.3. MS

8.7.2.4. Renal failure

8.7.2.5. Antidepressants

8.7.2.6. Digoxins

8.7.2.7. Sedatives

8.7.3. Symptoms

8.7.3.1. Inability to achieve erection

8.7.4. Treatment

8.7.4.1. Viagra

8.7.4.2. Levitra

8.7.4.3. Cialis

8.8. Benign prostatic hyperplasiac

8.8.1. Most older men have some degree

8.8.2. Symptoms

8.8.2.1. Hesitancy

8.8.2.2. Decreased flow of stream

8.8.2.3. Nocturia

8.8.3. Treatment

8.8.3.1. Realistic explanation of risk benefit

8.8.3.2. TURP

8.8.3.3. Prostatic massage

8.9. Cancer of prostate

8.9.1. Asymptomatic disease progression

8.9.2. Symptoms

8.9.2.1. Back pain

8.9.2.2. Anemia

8.9.2.3. Weakness

8.9.2.4. Weight loss

8.9.3. Treatment

8.9.3.1. Chemo

8.9.3.2. Radiation

8.9.4. Diagnosis

8.9.4.1. Digital rectal exam

8.9.4.2. PSA test

9. Frailty

9.1. Increased vulnerability, impaired capability to withstand stressors, and limited capacity to maintain physiological and psychological homeostasis

9.2. Common signs and symptoms

9.2.1. Weakness

9.2.2. Weight loss

9.2.3. Muscle wasting

9.2.4. Exercise intolerance

9.2.5. Decrease in grip strength

9.2.6. Frequent falls

9.2.7. Immobility

9.2.8. Sarcopenia

9.2.9. Osteopenia

9.3. Causes

9.3.1. Hormonal dysregulation

9.3.2. Immune-aging

9.4. Adult Failure to Thrive

9.4.1. Seen in those who have more than one chronic illness

9.4.2. Mean age 79

9.4.3. Average of 6 diagnoses

9.4.4. Malnourishedd

9.4.5. Dehydration

9.4.6. Skin ulcers

9.4.7. Falls

10. Safety

10.1. Restraints

10.1.1. Anything that restricts movementp

10.1.2. Physical

10.1.3. Chemical

10.1.4. New Topic

10.2. Lighting

10.2.1. Low lighting and natural light better than bright lights

10.2.2. Soft red light in bedroom

10.3. Temperature

10.3.1. Lower than normal in older adults

10.3.2. Decreased natural insulation

10.3.3. Recommended room temperature is 75

10.4. Colors

10.4.1. Red yellow white

10.4.1.1. Stimulating

10.4.1.2. Increase blood pressure

10.4.2. Blue brown

10.4.2.1. Relaxing

10.4.3. Orange

10.4.3.1. Stimulate appetite

10.4.4. Violet

10.4.4.1. Decrease appetite

10.4.5. Greenb

10.4.5.1. Sense of well being

10.4.6. Black

10.4.6.1. Depressing

10.5. Scents

10.5.1. Aromatherapy

10.5.2. Essential oils

10.6. Floor coverings

10.6.1. Carpeting full floor

10.6.2. Difficult wheel chair mobility

10.6.3. Scattered rugs lead to falls

10.7. Furniture

10.7.1. Appealing

10.7.2. Comfortable

10.7.3. Functional

10.7.4. Arm rests on chairs

10.7.5. Sturdy tables

10.8. Sensory stimulationn

10.8.1. Textured walls

10.8.2. Soft blankets

10.8.3. Wall hangings

10.8.4. Coffee brewings

10.8.5. Pot of flowers

10.8.6. Soft music

10.9. Noise control

10.9.1. Noise control begins with the design of the building

10.9.2. Intercoms disruptive

10.10. Bathroom hazards

10.10.1. Adequate lighting

10.10.2. Shower chair

10.10.3. Handrail in showers

10.10.4. Electrical appliances away from water

10.11. Fire hazards

10.11.1. Risk for burn injury

10.11.2. Unattended pots on stove

10.11.3. Careless disposal of cigarettes

10.11.4. Space heaters

10.12. Falls

10.12.1. 1/3 of adults 75 and up fall every year

10.12.2. Risk for falls

10.12.2.1. Improper use of mobility equipment

10.12.2.2. Medications

10.12.3. Prevention

10.12.3.1. Eyeglasses

10.12.3.2. Slowly change position

10.12.3.3. Use of assistive devices

10.12.3.4. Handrails

10.12.3.5. Regular med review

10.12.4. Nursing assessment

10.12.4.1. Regular home inspection

10.12.4.2. Medication review

10.13. Interventions to reduce safety risks

10.13.1. Monitor temp

10.13.2. Prevent infection

10.13.3. Avoid crime

10.13.4. Safe drivin

10.13.5. Early detection of safety concerns

10.14. Risks associated with mobility limitations

10.14.1. Slower reaction times

10.14.2. Poor coordination

10.14.3. Poor judgement

10.14.4. Denial

11. Respiratory System Health

11.1. Changes of Aging

11.1.1. Calcification of costal cartilage

11.1.2. Reduction of cough reflex

11.1.3. Increased residual capacity

11.1.4. High risk for respiratory infection

11.1.5. Septal deviation

11.2. Education

11.2.1. Flu and pneumonia vaccines

11.2.2. Avoid contact with people who have infections

11.2.3. Deep breathing exercises

11.2.4. Smoking cessation

11.3. Nursing diagnosis

11.3.1. Impaired gas exchange

11.3.2. Ineffective airway clearance

11.3.3. Risk for infection

11.3.4. Alterations in hydration

11.3.5. Activity intolerance

11.4. Asthma

11.4.1. Causes

11.4.1.1. Obesity

11.4.1.2. Smoking

11.4.1.3. Exposure to fumes

11.4.2. Symptoms

11.4.2.1. Shortness of breath

11.4.2.2. Chest tightness

11.4.2.3. Trouble sleeping

11.4.2.4. Wheezing

11.4.2.5. Coughing

11.4.3. Treatment

11.4.3.1. Bronchodilator

11.4.3.2. Stop smoking

11.4.3.3. Oxygen

11.4.3.4. Steroids

11.5. Emphysema

11.5.1. Increase incidence in older age

11.5.2. Causes

11.5.2.1. Chronic bronchitis

11.5.2.2. Chronic irritation

11.5.2.3. Smoking

11.5.3. Symptoms

11.5.3.1. Lung infections

11.5.3.2. Mucus

11.5.3.3. Wheezing

11.5.3.4. Fatigue

11.5.3.5. Blue tinged lips

11.5.4. Treatment

11.5.4.1. Postural drainage

11.5.4.2. Bronchodilators

11.5.4.3. Avoid stress

11.5.4.4. Breathing exercises

11.6. Lung cancer

11.6.1. Increased incidence in 65 and older

11.6.2. Higher in men

11.6.3. Causes

11.6.3.1. Smoking

11.6.4. Symptoms

11.6.4.1. Dyspnea

11.6.4.2. Coughc

11.6.4.3. chest pain

11.6.4.4. Fatigue

11.6.4.5. Anorexia

11.6.4.6. Wheezing

11.6.5. Treatment

11.6.5.1. Surgery

11.6.5.2. Chemo

11.6.5.3. Radiation

11.7. Nursing interventions

11.7.1. Preform postural drainage

11.7.1.1. Used to remove secretions

11.7.1.2. D/c if palpitations, dyspnea, Chet’s pain, apprehension

11.7.2. Promote productive coughing

11.7.2.1. Removes secretions

11.7.2.2. Hard candy

11.7.2.3. Breathing exercises

11.7.2.4. Humidifier

11.7.3. Complementary therapies

11.7.3.1. Aromatherapy

11.7.3.2. Acupuncture

11.7.3.3. Massage

11.7.4. Promote self care

12. Circulatory System Health

12.1. Changes of Aging

12.1.1. Heart loses efficiency

12.1.2. Reduced cardiac output

12.1.3. Increased stroke volume

12.1.4. Valves become thick and rigid

12.1.5. Decreased elasticity in blood vessels

12.1.6. Left ventricular atrophy

12.1.7. AV valve thickens leads to murmurs

12.1.8. Thinning of tunica media

12.1.9. Fibrosis of tunica intima

12.2. Education

12.2.1. Healthy diete

12.2.2. Exercise

12.2.3. No smoking

12.2.4. Manage stress

12.3. Nursing diagnosis

12.3.1. Risk for decreased cardiac output

12.3.2. Activity intolerance

12.3.3. Risk for impaired gas exchange

12.3.4. Acute pain

12.3.5. Anxiety

12.3.6. Ineffective tissue perfusion

12.4. Hypertension

12.4.1. Elevation of Bp greater than 140/90

12.4.2. Causes

12.4.2.1. Poor diet

12.4.2.2. Sedentary lifestyle

12.4.2.3. Medications

12.4.2.4. Stress

12.4.3. Symptoms

12.4.3.1. Dull headache

12.4.3.2. Impaired memory

12.4.3.3. epistaxis

12.4.3.4. Slow tremor

12.4.4. Treatment

12.4.4.1. Medications

12.4.4.2. Proper nutrition

12.4.4.3. Exercise

12.5. Congestive heart failure

12.5.1. Leading cause of hospitalization

12.5.2. Causes

12.5.2.1. Coronary artery disease a

12.5.2.2. Arteriosclerotic heart disease

12.5.3. Symptoms

12.5.3.1. SOB

12.5.3.2. Dyspnea

12.5.3.3. Confusion

12.5.3.4. Insomnia

12.5.3.5. Agitation

12.5.3.6. Weight gain

12.5.3.7. Edema

12.5.4. Treatment

12.5.4.1. Physical exercise

12.5.4.2. Low sodium diet

12.5.4.3. Diuretics

12.5.4.4. ACE inhibitors

12.5.4.5. Surgery

12.5.4.6. Implantable defibrillator

12.6. Hyperlipidemia

12.6.1. Causes

12.6.1.1. Alcohol consumption

12.6.1.2. Obesity

12.6.1.3. Steroid use

12.6.1.4. Kidney disease

12.6.2. Symptoms

12.6.2.1. Typically has no symptoms

12.6.3. Treatment

12.6.3.1. Dietary changes

12.6.3.2. Medications

12.6.3.3. Alternative therapies

12.7. Coronary artery disease

12.7.1. Ischemic heart disease

12.7.2. Angina

12.7.3. Causes

12.7.3.1. Plaque buildup due to obesity or poor nutrition

12.7.4. Symptoms

12.7.4.1. Coughing

12.7.4.2. Syncope

12.7.4.3. Sweating

12.7.4.4. Confusion

12.7.4.5. SOBele

12.7.4.6. Elevated temp

12.7.5. Treatment

12.7.5.1. Exercise

12.7.5.2. Statins

12.7.5.3. Beta blockers

12.7.5.4. Calcium channel blocker

12.7.5.5. Coronary stent

12.8. Nursing interventions

12.8.1. C reactive protein screening

12.8.2. Comprehensive assessment

12.8.3. Teach about supplements

12.8.4. Administer aspirin daily

13. Digestive System Health

13.1. Changes of Ages

13.1.1. Decreased esophageal motility

13.1.2. Decreased intestinal blood flow

13.1.3. Atrophy of intestines

13.1.4. Increased risk of aspiration

13.1.5. Indigestion

13.1.6. Constipation

13.1.7. Decreased HCL production

13.1.8. Lower fat absorption

13.2. Dysphagia

13.2.1. Causes

13.2.1.1. GERD

13.2.1.2. Stroke

13.2.1.3. Structural disorders

13.2.2. Interventions

13.2.2.1. Observe food intake

13.2.2.2. Refer to speech pathology

13.2.2.3. Soft diett

13.2.2.4. thicker liquids

13.2.2.5. Eat sitting upright

13.2.3. Goal

13.2.3.1. Prevent aspiration

13.2.3.2. Adequate nutrition

13.3. Hiatal hernia

13.3.1. Causes

13.3.1.1. Older females

13.3.1.2. Low fiber diet

13.3.1.3. Obese

13.3.2. Type

13.3.2.1. Sliding

13.3.2.2. Rolling

13.3.3. Symptoms

13.3.3.1. Heartburn

13.3.3.2. Dysphagia

13.3.3.3. Belching

13.3.3.4. Vomiting

13.3.3.5. Pain

13.3.3.6. Bleeding

13.3.4. Treatment

13.3.4.1. Weight loss

13.3.4.2. Surgery

13.3.4.3. Proton pump inhibitor

13.4. Esophageal cancer

13.4.1. Types

13.4.1.1. Squamous cell

13.4.1.2. Adenocarcinomas

13.4.2. Causes

13.4.2.1. Alcoholism

13.4.2.2. Older men

13.4.2.3. Heavy smoking

13.4.2.4. Poor oral hygiene

13.4.3. Symptoms

13.4.3.1. Dysphagia

13.4.3.2. Weight loss

13.4.3.3. Excessive salivation

13.4.3.4. Thirst

13.4.3.5. Hiccups

13.4.4. Diagnosis

13.4.4.1. Barium swallow

13.4.4.2. Esophagoscopy

13.4.4.3. Biopsy

13.4.5. Treatment

13.4.5.1. Surgical resection

13.4.5.2. Radiation

13.4.5.3. Chemo

13.4.5.4. Laser therapy

13.4.5.5. Photodynamic

13.5. Education

13.5.1. Good dental hygiene

13.5.2. Proper nutrition

13.5.3. Knowledge of medications

13.5.4. Natural remedies

13.6. Nursing diagnosis

13.6.1. Deficient fluid volume

13.6.2. Risk for imbalanced nutrition

13.6.3. Acute pain

13.6.4. Knowledge deficit

13.6.5. Constipation

13.6.6. Risk for impaired skin integrity

14. Urinary System Health

14.1. Changes of Aging

14.1.1. Decreased renal blood flow

14.1.2. Glomerular filtration decreases by 50%

14.1.3. Urinary frequency and urgency

14.1.4. Nocturia common

14.1.5. Weaker bladder muscles

14.1.6. Decreased production of RBCs

15. Endocrine System Health

15.1. Changes of Aging

15.1.1. Thyroid gland activity decreased

15.1.2. T3 changes

15.1.3. Secretion of ACTH decreases

15.1.4. Insulin release is delayed

15.1.5. Ability to metabolize glucose decreased

16. Sensory System Health

16.1. Changes of Aging

16.1.1. Eyes

16.1.1.1. Presbyopia

16.1.1.1.1. Inability to focus on close objects clearly

16.1.1.2. Narrowing of visual field

16.1.1.3. Decreased peripheral vision

16.1.1.4. Reduction in pupil size

16.1.1.5. Decline in visual acuity

16.1.1.6. Decreased elasticity of lens

16.1.1.7. Macular degeneration

16.1.1.7.1. Loss of central vision

16.1.1.8. Lens become more opaque

16.1.2. Taste

16.1.2.1. Atrophy on tongue

16.1.2.2. Decreased saliva

16.1.2.3. Poor oral hygiene

16.1.3. Smell

16.1.3.1. Taste acuity dependent on smell

16.1.3.2. Impaired ability to identify odors

16.2. Education

16.3. Nursing diagnosis

16.4. Cataracts

16.5. Presbycusis

16.6. Macular degeneration

17. Musculoskeletal System Health

17.1. Changes of Aging

17.1.1. Slight kyphosis

17.1.2. Reduced muscle mass

17.1.3. Decreased bone mass

17.1.4. Decreased calcium absorption

17.1.5. Increased risk of fractures

17.2. Education

17.2.1. Promote physical activity

17.2.2. Exercise programs

17.2.3. Begin exercise gradually

17.2.4. Promote good nutrition

17.3. Nursing diagnosis

17.3.1. Activity intolerance

17.3.2. Impaired physical mobility

17.3.3. Activity intolerance

17.3.4. Impaired physical mobility

17.4. Osteoarthritis

17.4.1. Progressive deterioration of joint cartilage c

17.4.2. Causes

17.4.2.1. Genetics

17.4.2.2. Obesity

17.4.2.3. Injury

17.4.2.4. Overuse

17.4.2.5. Genetics

17.4.2.6. Obesity

17.4.2.7. Injury

17.4.2.8. Overuse

17.4.3. Symptoms

17.4.3.1. Pain in joints

17.4.3.2. Stiffnesss

17.4.3.3. Swelling

17.4.3.4. Limping

17.4.3.5. Pain in joints

17.4.3.6. Stiffnesss

17.4.3.7. Swelling

17.4.3.8. Limping

17.4.4. Treatment

17.4.4.1. Exercise

17.4.4.2. Weight loss

17.4.4.3. Analgesics

17.4.4.4. Hydrotherapy

17.4.4.5. Joint replacement

17.4.4.6. Exercise

17.4.4.7. Weight loss

17.4.4.8. Analgesics

17.4.4.9. Hydrotherapy

17.4.4.10. Joint replacement

17.5. Fractures

17.5.1. Causes

17.5.2. Interventions

17.5.3. Types

17.6. Gout

17.6.1. Excess Utica acid accumulation

17.6.2. Causes

17.6.3. Symptoms

17.6.4. Treatment

18. Neurological System Health

18.1. Delirium vs Dementia

18.1.1. Dementia

18.1.1.1. Irreversible

18.1.1.2. Impairment to in cognitive functiona

18.1.1.3. Affects

18.1.1.3.1. Memory

18.1.1.3.2. Orientation

18.1.1.3.3. Reasoning

18.1.1.3.4. Attention

18.1.1.3.5. Language

18.1.1.3.6. Problem solving

18.1.1.4. Caused by brain damage or injury

18.1.1.5. Alzheimer’s Disease

18.1.1.5.1. Most common form of dementia

18.1.1.5.2. Symptoms gradually develop

18.1.1.5.3. Global deterioration scale

18.1.1.5.4. Changes in the brain

18.1.1.5.5. Causes

18.1.1.5.6. Treatment/Management

18.1.1.6. Other dementias

18.1.1.6.1. Vascular

18.1.1.6.2. Frontotemporal

18.1.1.6.3. Lewy Body

18.1.1.6.4. Wernicke encephalopathyp

18.1.1.6.5. Parkinson’s

18.1.1.6.6. AIDS

18.1.1.7. Care of patients with dementia

18.1.1.7.1. CAM therapy

18.1.1.7.2. Support family

18.1.1.7.3. Therapeutic exercise

18.1.2. Delirium

18.1.2.1. Causes

18.1.2.1.1. Hypoxia

18.1.2.1.2. Infection

18.1.2.1.3. Dehydration

18.1.2.1.4. Hypernatremia

18.1.2.1.5. Cognitive impairment

18.1.2.1.6. Medications

18.1.2.2. Symptoms

18.1.2.2.1. Altered level of conciousness

18.1.2.2.2. Tachypnea

18.1.2.2.3. Cyanosis

18.1.2.2.4. Agitation

18.1.2.2.5. Infection

18.1.2.3. Treatment

18.1.2.3.1. Based upon the cause

18.1.2.3.2. Minimize stimulation

18.1.2.3.3. Prevention of self harm

18.2. Changes of Aging

18.2.1. Loss of nerve cell mass

18.2.2. Decreased dendrites

18.2.3. Demyelinizations

18.2.4. owing in central processingl

18.2.5. Decline in taste and smell cranial nerves

18.3. Education

18.3.1. Neurological assessments at every doctors visit

18.3.2. Monitor and look for risk factors

18.4. Nursing diagnosis

18.4.1. Impaired physical mobility

18.4.2. Self care deficits

18.4.3. Disturbed sensory perceptions

18.4.4. Impaired verbal communication

18.5. Parkinson’s disease

18.5.1. Affects CNS ability to control movements

18.5.2. Dopamine

18.5.2.1. Decreased due to nerve cell damage

18.5.3. Cause

18.5.3.1. Unknown

18.5.4. Symptoms

18.5.4.1. Tremors

18.5.4.2. Shuffling gait

18.5.5. Treatment

18.5.5.1. Anticholinergics

18.5.5.2. Technology

18.5.6. Interventions

18.5.6.1. Education

18.5.6.2. Physical exercise help

18.5.6.3. Psychosocial coping

18.6. Transient ischemic attack

18.6.1. Temporary or intermittent reduction in cerebral perfusionc

18.6.2. Causes

18.6.2.1. Stress

18.6.2.2. Peripheral artery disease

18.6.2.3. High blood pressure

18.6.2.4. Diabetes

18.6.3. Symptoms

18.6.3.1. Muscle weakness

18.6.3.2. Vertigo

18.6.3.3. Blurred vision

18.6.3.4. Numbness

18.6.3.5. Mental confusion

18.6.4. Treatment

18.6.4.1. Blood thinners

18.6.4.2. Cardiac monitoring

18.6.4.3. Surgery

18.6.5. Interventions

18.6.5.1. Support airway

18.6.5.2. Monitor vital signs

18.6.5.3. Monitor neurological status

18.7. Cerebrovascular accident

18.7.1. Causes

18.7.1.1. Ischemic

18.7.1.1.1. Blockage in Brain

18.7.1.2. Hemorrhagic

18.7.1.2.1. Rupture of a blood vessel

18.7.2. Symptoms

18.7.2.1. Difficulty walking

18.7.2.2. Blurred vision

18.7.2.3. Fatigue

18.7.2.4. Difficulty speaking

18.7.3. Treatments

18.7.3.1. ACE inhibitor

18.7.3.2. Surgery

18.7.3.3. Physical exercise