Applied Linguistic Theories of Second Language Learning

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Applied Linguistic Theories of Second Language Learning by Mind Map: Applied Linguistic Theories of Second Language Learning

1. Important Quotes

1.1. "The actual purpose of learning-new languages-to become bilingual and multilingual, rather than to replace the learner's L1 to become another monolingual-often gets forgotten or neglected, and the bilingual, rather than monolingual, speaker is rarely used as the model for teaching and learning" (Wei, p.16).

1.1.1. I felt this quote was very powerful because it emphasizes the point that many in our culture and in our educational world do not value the complexity and challenges it takes to be multilingual. As teachers of ELs, we need to promote this "model" as critical pedagogy. We can think beyond the boundaries of traditional languages and support our student's translanguaging for different communicative purposes.

1.2. Rethink language from a pure form that is no longer efficient to a "more complex interweaving" (Wei, p.15).

1.3. students’ multilingualism as a “potential resource rather than necessarily a barrier to language and content learning” (Lin, 2013, p. 522) is a nice quote which can summarize the attitude we should have as educators.

1.4. "Intercultural pedagogy has the benefit of developing a deeper reflection on the relationship of the learner to languages, including a questioning of the native speaker model. It fosters a strong sense of respect for the diversity of languages, and recognizes the many areas of interaction between languages. It enables teachers and students to compare and contrast the different cultures that are in contact, and adopt a broader and more intercultural perspective. In this way, they may enter a “third space”, which marks the difference between cultures and enables bridges to be built between them (Kelly, 2016, p. 70)

1.4.1. This quote is powerful because it illustrates the importance of using intercultural approach and the interaction of many languages. It also advocates for translanguaging!

1.5. "Treating spatiality as significant means understanding every practice as situated, holistic, networked, mediated, and ecological, thus integrated with diverse conditions, resources, and participants". (Canagarajah, p.3)

1.5.1. Spatiality suggests that language must be viewed in a holistic context, as a network of ideas and modalities, used by speakers with a wide range of purposes, resources, and conditions.

1.6. Canagarajah explains that all types of communication should be seen as valid and that language is just one part of that. He says "according to assemblage all modalities, including language, work together and shape each other in communication". (Canagarajah, p.9)

1.7. "Language is deeply embedded in every area of life." (Kelly, 2016, p. 66)

2. Questions

2.1. As a teacher, I will continue to support my student's use of translanguaging, but what can I do specifically to encourage or increase its use in my classroom? Are there specific strategies or practices that teachers can use?

2.2. 1.“Some EAL students may delay enrolling in a WI course in the hope of improving their English and writing as much as possible beforehand; they may lack all of the necessary academic skills needed to benefit from learning through writing; and they may worry that a WI course will lower their GPA and thus their chances of graduating and finding a job.” Would you have a similar opinion if you were in the position of these learners? 2. “…instructors too require support and training to allow them to better bring together disciplinary content, writing.” Is it realistic and applicable to educate instructors as well?

2.3. I really liked the suggestion that language should be situated in the context of time and space and viewed holistically. I think that simply viewing language this way will naturally change the way I teach, but what are some concrete examples of how to use this idea in the classroom? how do we encourage our students to use all the modalities available to them?

2.4. Questions about multilingual teaching

2.4.1. As we have seen in many of our readings, the English or target only approach has widely been used in language teaching, but we know that translanguaging is a better method and our first languages can be useful in the context of learning another language or languages. Therefore, how could we create a more multilingual approach? If we viewed our societies to be more multilingual do you think this would change our practice?

2.4.2. Kelly (2016) emphasizes how intercultural approaches to language teaching have not yet fully moved into language teaching practice. They note that this is partly because each language contributes differently to language learning. We tend to focus on the target language and use a native speaker model which aims at communicative proficiency rather than intercultural competence. Instead, they argue it should be "a complex engagement with linguistic and cultural diversity." The author questions if this change is possible? Do current policies and norms hinder intercultural competence and uphold the target language only approach?

2.4.3. \

3. Practical Theory of Language

3.1. Translanguaging can answer some fundamental questions in a Post-Mulitlingualism era about what language is (Wei, 2017).

3.1.1. Adding trans to languaging

3.1.1.1. transcends

3.1.1.2. transformative

3.1.1.3. transdisciplinary

3.1.2. Languaging communication includes more than just linguistic forms but includes history, experience, memory, culture and subjectivity.

3.1.2.1. There is a social component to the languaging activity called linguistics of participation..

3.1.3. I'm so glad I found this video on translanguaging. It points out a change in thinking about translanguaging by a trained university professor, an easy to understand definition, how it looks in a classroom, and some strategies for classroom use! Please take a look at this short (under 2 minutes) video.

3.2. Multilingualism is when multiple languages are present and used in a society. Here is a video that explains why it is important aspect in a society:

3.2.1. In the context of teaching:

3.2.1.1. It can mean many things:

3.2.1.1.1. 1. teaching of a range of languages and providing students with opportunities to develop a repertoire of languages that they can communicate in. (Kelly, 2016)

3.2.1.1.2. 2. offering multiple languages strengthens the usage of multiple languages in a society of institution (Kelly, 2016).

3.2.1.1.3. 3. it needs to respond to the multilingualism and multiculturalism of staff and student populations (Kelly, 2016).

3.2.1.2. challenges:

3.2.1.2.1. 1. The monolingual ethos

3.2.1.2.2. 2. professional identity of language teachers

3.2.1.3. Changing current practices:

3.2.1.3.1. Intercultural pedagogy:

3.2.1.3.2. Professional Development

3.2.1.4. We can view language as an "assemblage". As teachers we can understand that all forms of communication work together in the context of space and time and that many modalities used together are valid and effective ways of communicating. We can validate our students when they find effective ways of communicating and encourage them to use all the resources available to them- adding them together to experience satisfying self expression.

4. Insights

4.1. The differences between learning to write and writing to learn. Writing to Learn suggests that writing is used primarily as a tool for learning and engaging with course content. Learning to write, that is, allowing students to become better writers through explicit instruction in disciplinary writing, through feedback, and through writing more. I don’t have any experience related to multilingual learners. This context is not common in Turkey.

4.2. Canagarajah explains that "translingualism calls for a shift from structuralist assumptions to consider more mobile expansive, situated, holistic practices" (Canagarajah p.1)

4.3. I thought Canagarajah painted an interesting picture of how all types of communication should be considered valid. He described a Korean mathematician teaching in the United States. His English was limited and his vocabulary was limited to math concepts but his students loved his teaching because his "board work" was great. Canagarajah's points was that there are lots of different ways to communicate effectively that may not appear at first to be "perfect fluency" in a given language. For example, hand gestures, "board work" in a math setting, and written expression are all ways of communicating and communication should be viewed in the context of space and time.

4.4. My article spoke about the concept of multilingualism in the context of Europe. I believe it can be seen in Europe much differently than in the U.S. as a Dutch citizen, I know that multilingualism is important in Europe because it promotes interconnectedness among countries in the EU, trade, and other important functions. However, in the context of the U.S., we are a much more monolinguistic even though we live in a very multicultural society. This made me think about how schools should instill more language learning in our schools and not only in the format of ESL and foreign language but in a more dual immersion model. We live in a time of globalization where multilingualism needs to be the norm.

4.4.1. Additionally, using multi-literacy and translanguaging in our our societies and classrooms could improve our classrooms and the language learning of our students. These strategies could be used to help scaffold students who are SLIFE by allowing them to use their first language to assist them with learning their second language. In a multicultural classroom, shared second languages could even be used.