Restaurant hygiene and safety

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Restaurant hygiene and safety by Mind Map: Restaurant hygiene and safety

1. Food-borne illness

1.1. Type of FBI harzard

1.1.1. Biological

1.1.1.1. Biological Hazards-Bacteria (highest number)

1.1.1.1.1. Single-celled microorganism --capable for reproducing in about 20 mins

1.1.1.1.2. Causes

1.1.2. Chemical

1.1.2.1. Increased use of pesticides

1.1.2.1.1. chemical contamination of foods

1.1.3. physical

1.2. Causes of FBI

1.2.1. High protein foods

1.2.2. Three disease-causing microorganisms most common in the US

1.2.2.1. Staphylococcus aureus金黃葡萄球菌

1.2.2.1.1. Produce enterotoxins毒素 that cannot be destroyed

1.2.2.2. Salmonella

1.2.2.2.1. 2,000 closely related bacteria Continually cycle through intestinal tracts of people and animals

1.2.2.3. Clostridium perfringens芽胞桿菌科

1.2.2.3.1. Bacteria present in soil, intestines of animals and humans, and in sewage

2. FBI :disease that is carried or transmitted to human beings by food

2.1. United States Public Health Service

2.1.1. more than 40 types

3. Most frequently cited errors in food handling

3.1. Failure to cool food properly

3.2. Failure to heat or cook food thoroughly

3.3. Infected employees who practice poor personal hygiene at home and at the workplace

3.4. Food prepared a day or more before they served

3.5. Raw, contaminated ingredients incorporated into foods that receive no further cooking

3.6. Foods allowed remaining at bacteria-incubation temperatures

3.7. Failure to reheat cooked foods to temperatures that kill bacteria

3.8. Cross-contamination of cooked foods with raw foods, or by employees who mishandle foods, or through improperly cleaned equipment

4. Controlling or Destroying Bacteria

4.1. Temperature

4.1.1. Temperature danger zone: (4ºC to 60ºC)

4.1.1.1. Destroying

4.1.1.1.1. Heat

4.1.1.1.2. Chemical sanitation

4.2. Potentially hazardous foods

5. Food, Moisture, Proper pH, and Time

6. Viruses

6.1. Hepatitis A甲型肝炎(飛沫傳染) and Norwalk Virus

6.1.1. Do not require a hazardous food in order to survive

6.1.2. Can survive on any food or surface

6.1.3. Do not multiply

6.1.4. Not as affected by heat or cold

6.1.5. Use the food or other surface as means of transportation

6.2. Once a virus enters a body cell, it takes over

6.2.1. Forcing the cell to assist in production of more viruses

7. Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points

7.1. Identify hazards and assess severity and risks

7.2. Determine critical control points in food preparation

7.3. Determine critical control limits for each CCP

7.4. Monitor CCPs and record data (for tracing back)

7.5. Take corrective action whenever monitoring indicates a CCL is exceeded

7.6. Establish an effective record-keeping system to document the HACCP system

7.7. Establish procedures to verify that the HACCP system is working

8. Common food safety tips

8.1. Time/temperature

8.1.1. Keep cool foods below (4ºC) and hot foods above (60ºC)

8.1.2. Invest in digital thermometers with long probes or thermocouples. Make use of oven and refrigerator thermometers.

8.1.3. Invest in digital thermometers with long probes or thermocouples. Make use of oven and refrigerator thermometers.

8.1.4. When cooling hot food, place them into shallow pans and cool them with an ice bath or a cooling paddle, or use ice as an ingredient before placing them in the cooler.

8.1.5. Cook food to the temperature recommended by Food and Environmental Hygiene Department.

8.1.6. Reheat foods, one time only, to (74°C). Once foods are cooked or reheated, temperature must be held above (60°C).

8.1.7. Prepare foods in batches; avoid leaving large quantities of food at room temperature during preparation.

8.2. Cross-contamination

8.2.1. Most occurs in food preparation

8.2.1.1. Use color-coded cutting boards and dedicated the colors to specific foods (e.g. chicken only, vegetable only, bread only, etc.). When boards go black, throw them out.

8.2.1.2. Dedicate knives to specific foods, and clean and sanitize them between all cutting jobs. Label drawers where the knives are kept so that they stay dedicated.

8.2.1.3. Wipe down the slice blander with a clean, hot cloth between jobs and sanitize.

8.2.1.4. Use an antiseptic block ( a block of solidified sanitizer that slice on the slicer).

8.2.1.5. Clean and sanitize the counter between each cutting job.

8.2.1.6. Cooked foods and foods to be served raw go on the top selves of cooler, uncooked raw foods go on bottom selves to eliminate the chance of contaminated juices dipping onto ready-to-eat foods.

8.2.1.7. For buffet: tongs, ladles, spoons need to be cleaned and sanitized, or replace , every half hour.

8.3. Personal hygiene

8.3.1. Wash hands frequently, especially after dealing with potentially hazardous foods.

8.3.2. Wear protective gloves when handling foods

8.4. Approaches to Food Safety

8.4.1. Overall responsibility for foodservice has been given to the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department

8.4.1.1. Provides a model ordinance that is the basis for most local health ordinances

8.4.1.2. FEHD and local communities monitor restaurants for cleanliness and adherence to food protection ordinances

8.4.1.3. Health officer makes an inspection

8.4.1.4. Regular physical examination of personnel

8.5. Food Protection as a System

8.5.1. The more sanitation practices built into a system:

8.5.1.1. Personnel trained in the system are carried along by it

8.5.1.2. Systematize sanitation practices: Build them into the manager's daily schedule