Research Methodology - What you need to know and sources -IB

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1. Citations

1.1. KnightCiteCitation Machine

1.2. Purdue Online Writing Lab

1.3. Citation Machine/ Easy Bib, Bib Me

2. Types of Resources -Chapter 1 Lynda

2.1. Primary Sources

2.1.1. Definition: Raw data: original sources of information before it has been analyzed Characteristics: First-hand observations, contemporary accounts of events, viewpoints at the time. Examples: Interviews, speeches, diaries, birth certificates, journal articles (science), newspaper articles written at the time.

2.2. Secondary Sources

2.2.1. Definition: Sources that analyze or interpret primary data. They do not offer new evidence Characteristics: Interpretations of information, written after the event, offer review or critique Examples: Biographies, journal articles, textbooks, commentaries, editorials, literacy criticisms

2.3. Tertiary Sources

2.3.1. Definition: Sources that compile data on a particular topic Characteristics: Collections or lists or primary and secondary sources, references works, finding tools for sources. Examples: Encyclopedias, biographies, abstracts, indexes, literature reviews, library catalogs, databases

3. Research Question

3.1. If your paper is "To what extent is x the cause of y?" then your paper is about theall the causes of y.

3.2. If your paper is "In what ways did x achieve its goals?" then the paper is about goals and how x did and did not achieve them.

3.3. If your paper is "To what extent is x the most important implication of Y?" Then, your paper is all about the implications of y.

4. Scholarly book reviews

4.1. Jstor --- Perform an advanced search

4.1.1. Purpose - "Reading book reviews can help you get a quick view of what scholars say about your topic without reading a lot of books! They can also help you figure out which books you might want to actually read all or part f your project

4.1.2. In your Diigo Citation - Copy and paste MLA citation, 1. What does the reviewer think of the book? 2. What does the reviewer say about the author of your book? 3. Does the reviewer mention any other authors or books that might be helpful for your research?4. How could you use the book (note the review) to answer your research question?

4.1.3. Search the book title in quotes in an online library database and locate the title of your book

5. Situate your research question

5.1. What existing theories, critical approaches, methods or factors have already or exist to answer your research question. "many historians have argued that... "Views on ... range from..."

5.2. Do not provided detailed background information

5.3. Indicate existing theories, critical approaches, methods or factors that have already been suggested or exist to answer your research question. "Many historians have argued that...Views on .. range from..."

6. Use Library databases

6.1. Parkdale

6.2. UMD


6.4. LOC

6.5. JSTOR

7. How to use databases and to perform searches.

7.1. Tutorials -- Slides 6-8

8. Evidence -

8.1. Statistics are numerical data, usually presented through research, surveys, or polls. Statistics should be relevant to your argument, as current as possible, accurate, and from a reliable source.

8.2. Examples are specific instances that illustrate general statements. In a book on life after dark in Europe, a historian offers several examples to demonstrate his point that three hundred years ago, night was treacherous:

8.3. Authorities are experts on your subject. To be useful, authorities you consult carefully to make sure they have the credentials necessary for readers to take them seriously. When you cite experts, you should clearly identify them and the origins of their authority in a single phrase.

8.4. Facts: ideas that are proven to be true. Facts can include observations or scholarly research, but they need to be accepted as true. If your audience accepts the facts you present, they can be powerful means of persuasion.

9. Primary Sources -

9.1. You need at least 4

9.1.1. In your Diigo Citation What type of source it is.

9.1.2. Who authored /created it

9.1.3. Why was it created?

9.1.4. Who was the intended audience?

9.1.5. What evidence does it contribute to the topic you are studying, the narrative you are writing, or the argument you are making?

9.1.6. Three possible answers to your research question

9.1.7. How does the point of view/position of the author shape the source?

9.2. Produced by a participant in or witness to the events you are writing about

9.3. Letters, manuscripts, diaries, rare books, historical photographs, first-hand accounts or documentary sources on a subject , person, event or issue; newspapers written at the time of an event, song, or film form time period, historical maps, government reports or data ect..

9.4. Search Strategy : Your subject and/or keyword AND archives, primary sources, ect

9.4.1. Alternative Search Engines- Google : :search engine your topic"

10. Scholarly Journal Articles

10.1. You need at Least 4

10.2. Written by a historian who had no part in what they are writing aboout

10.3. Scholarly sources draw on many primary sources as practical

10.4. Be careful to distnguish between scholarly and non-scholarly secondary sources

10.5. Most scholarly works are written by professional historians who have advanced training in the area they are writing about.

10.6. If the author is a journalist or someone with no special historical training, be careful.

11. Scholarly Books

11.1. You will need at least 2

11.1.1. Scholarly Book Reviews Written for scholars by scholars. These reviews place the book within the scholarly discourse, compare book to other works in the field, and analyze the author's methodology, interpretations , and conclusions. Perform an advanced search to find book reviews . If you need help, let it be known.

11.1.2. Skim deeper - Read the chapter titles and headings and topic sentences to determine the relevance of what you are reading for your own research

11.2. Read the introductory sections - Get an overview of the reseracher's argument

11.3. Examine the table of contents and index. Consider the most relevant chapters to your topic and list the relevant subjects

11.4. Check the notes and bibliographic references. Identify the authors a researcher refers to (do the names come up in many different books?) and the titles of both books and articles.

12. Popular Magazine or News Articles Documentary/Videos, Websites

12.1. No more than three

12.2. These can be useful in helping you understand a subject or giving you a modern perspective on the topic. They can be particularly useful for the "why is this topic significant and important" section of your introduction; however, if they are not substantial and well-researched or a primary source themselves, they should be used sparingly. One or two citations can be from sources like this, but not much more than that.

13. Tertiary Sources

13.1. an index or something tht condenses or summarizes information : such as Timelines, Encyclopedias.

13.1.1. Use these to understand a topic, but you can't use them as actual research. Look to see if they have a bibliography of their own and use those to cite information

14. Relevancy and Critical Thinking

15. Information Access & Evaluation

16. Plagiarism

17. Annotated Bibliography