Older Adult

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Older Adult by Mind Map: Older Adult

1. Age related musculoskeletal changes

1.1. Sarcopenia

1.1.1. Increased weakness

1.1.2. Poor exercise tolerance

1.2. Lean body mass replaced by fat

1.3. Bone loss

1.4. Decreased strength

1.5. Intervertebral disc degeneration

1.6. Articular cartilage erode

1.7. Kyphosis

1.8. Height reduction

1.9. Reduced flexibility

1.10. Decreased muscle fibers

1.11. Reduced muscle mass

1.12. Risk for

1.12.1. Falls

1.12.2. Unstable gait

1.13. Patho

1.13.1. Fractures

1.13.2. Osteoarthritis

1.13.3. RA

1.13.4. Osteoporosis

1.13.5. Gout

2. Age related immune changes

2.1. Immune response dysfunction

2.2. Increased susceptibility to infection

2.3. Reduced efficiency of vaccination

2.4. Chronic inflammatory state

2.5. Thymus decreases in size

2.6. Increase T cells

2.7. Reduced antibody responsed

2.8. Decrease Langerhans cells

3. Age related Integumentary changes

3.1. Reduced

3.1.1. Thickness of dermis

3.1.2. Vascularity of dermis

3.1.3. Epidermal turnover

3.1.4. Melanocytes

3.1.5. Nail & hair growth

3.2. Degenerated

3.2.1. Elastic fibers

3.3. Increased

3.3.1. Collagen

3.3.2. Skin fragility

3.4. Patho

3.4.1. Pruritus

3.4.2. Keratosis

3.4.3. Skin cancer

3.4.4. Vascular lesions

3.4.5. Stasis dermatitis

3.4.6. Pressure ulcers

4. Age related Nervous changes

4.1. Decreased

4.1.1. Neurons

4.1.2. Neurotransmitters

4.1.3. Nerve cell mass

4.1.4. Number of dendrites

4.1.5. Mylination

4.1.5.1. Slowed reaction time/ reflexes

4.1.6. Cerebral blood flow

4.1.7. Time of central processing

4.1.8. Sensations

4.2. Modifications

4.2.1. Cerebral dendrites

4.2.2. Glial support cells

4.2.3. Synapses

4.3. Compromised thermoregulation

4.4. Impairments

4.4.1. General muscle strength

4.4.2. Deep tendon reflexes

4.4.3. Nerve conduction

4.4.4. Velocity

4.4.5. Slowed motor skills

4.4.6. Defects in balance and coordination

4.5. Increased risk for

4.5.1. Sleep disordersd

4.5.2. Delirium

4.5.3. Neurodegenerative diseases

4.6. Patho

4.6.1. Parkinson’s disease

4.6.2. Transient ischemic attacks

4.6.3. Cardiovascular accident

4.6.4. Cerebrovascular accident

5. Age related GI changes

5.1. Decrease

5.1.1. Strength of muscles

5.1.2. Tase

5.1.3. Thirst

5.1.4. Motility

5.1.5. Pepsin

5.1.6. Peristalsis

5.1.7. Saliva production

5.2. Malabsorption

5.2.1. Carbs

5.2.2. B12

5.2.3. Vit. Dc

5.2.4. Calcium

5.3. Risk of

5.3.1. Chewing impairment

5.3.2. Fluid & electrolyte imbalance

5.3.3. Poor nutrition

5.3.4. GERD

5.4. Gastric changes

5.4.1. Altered drug absorption

5.4.2. Maldigestion

5.4.3. NSAID induced ulcers

5.5. Increased

5.5.1. Stomach pH

5.6. Patho

5.6.1. Biliary tract disease

5.6.2. Appendicitis

5.6.3. Bowel incontinece

5.6.4. Intestinal obstruction

5.6.5. Fecal impaction

5.6.6. Constipation

5.6.7. Diverticulosis

5.6.8. Peptic ulcer disease

5.6.9. Cancer

5.6.10. Hiatal hernia

5.6.11. Dysphasia

5.6.12. Dental issues

6. Age Related cardiac changes

6.1. Arterial wall

6.1.1. Thickening

6.1.2. Stiffening

6.2. Hypertrophy

6.3. Sclerosis

6.4. Pulses

6.4.1. Diminished peripheral

6.5. Stress/ exercise induced

6.5.1. Decreased max. HR

6.5.2. Decreased CO

6.6. Risk of

6.6.1. Inflamed varicositiesa

6.6.2. Arrhythmias

6.6.3. Hypotension

6.7. Patho

6.7.1. Venous thrombosis

6.7.2. Varicose veins

6.7.3. Aneurysms

6.7.4. PVD

6.7.5. Arrhythmia

6.7.6. Hyperlipidemia

6.7.7. MI

6.7.8. Angina

6.7.9. CAD

6.7.10. PE

6.7.11. CHF

6.7.12. Hypotension

6.7.13. Hypertension

6.7.14. Cancer

6.7.15. CVD

7. Age related GU changes

7.1. Decreased

7.1.1. Kidney mass

7.1.2. Blood flow

7.1.3. GFR

7.1.4. Drug clearance

7.2. Reduced

7.2.1. Bladder elasticity

7.2.2. Muscle tone

7.2.3. Capacity

7.3. Increased

7.3.1. Post void residual

7.3.2. Nocturia

7.3.3. Prostate size

7.4. Risk for

7.4.1. Nephrotic injury

7.4.2. Adverse reactions from drugs

7.4.3. Volume overload

7.4.4. Dehydration

7.4.5. Hyponatrimia

7.4.6. Hyperkalemia

7.4.7. Urgency to void

7.4.8. Incontinence

7.4.9. UTI

7.4.10. Nocturia

7.5. Patho

7.5.1. Urinary incontinence

7.5.2. Bladder cancer

7.5.3. Renal calculi

7.5.4. Glomeruloneohritis

8. Age related pulmonary changes

8.1. Decreased

8.1.1. Respiratory muscle strength

8.1.2. Cardiac reflex

8.1.3. Reponse

8.1.3.1. Hypoxia

8.1.3.2. Hypercapnia

8.1.4. Expansion

8.1.5. Cough

8.2. Risk for

8.2.1. Infection

8.2.2. Bronchospasm

8.3. Lungs reduce

8.3.1. Size

8.3.2. Weight

8.3.3. Elastic recoil

8.3.4. Alveoli elasticity

8.3.5. Lung capacity

8.4. Patho

8.4.1. Asthma

8.4.2. Bronchitis

8.4.3. Emphysema

8.4.4. Lung cancer

8.4.5. Lung abscess

9. Age related endocrine changes

9.1. Thyroid

9.1.1. Atrophies

9.2. Adrenal gland

9.2.1. Decreased function

9.3. Adrenoclrticotroic

9.3.1. Decrease

9.4. Pituitary gland

9.4.1. Volume decrease

9.5. Insulin

9.5.1. Insufficient release

9.6. Patho

9.6.1. Type 2 Diabetes

9.6.2. Hyperthyroidism

9.6.3. Hypothyroidism