Learning

This is based on the different learning techniques focused widely in the field of Psychology.

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Learning by Mind Map: Learning

1. Classical Conditioning

1.1. one connects an automatic response to an external stimuli. Experimented by Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, on dogs.

1.1.1. 4 stages

1.1.1.1. Acquisition

1.1.1.1.1. The initial phase of learning the conditioned response.

1.1.1.2. Extinction

1.1.1.2.1. the disappearance of the conditioned response brought about by repeatedly presenting the stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus.

1.1.1.3. Generalization

1.1.1.3.1. After a conditioned response to one stimulus has been learned, the subject may also respond to similar stimuli without further training.

1.1.1.4. Discrimination

1.1.1.4.1. When an individual learns to produce a conditioned response to one stimulus, but not to another similar stimulus.

1.1.2. Stimulus - Response

1.1.2.1. Unconditioned Stimuli

1.1.2.1.1. A stimulus that automatically produces a response that doesn't require learning.

1.1.2.2. Unconditioned Response

1.1.2.2.1. An unlearned response which is automatically expressed towards an unconditioned stimuli.

1.1.2.3. Neutral Stimulus

1.1.2.3.1. Does not bring about a desired response.

2. Operant Conditioning

2.1. Consequences for behaviour , change the likelihood that the behaviour will occur in future. Mainly conceptualized by B.F. Skinner. Also known as Instrumental Conditioning as termed by E.L. Thorndike. Skinner experimented with rats and Thorndike experimented with cats.

2.1.1. Reinforcement

2.1.1.1. Positive

2.1.1.1.1. The addition of a reward following a desired behaviour.

2.1.1.2. Negative

2.1.1.2.1. Removing a negative or adverse stimulus to strengthen a behaviour.

2.1.1.3. Factors: Social, Edible, Tangible, activity.

2.1.1.4. Schedules: Fixed-Ratio, Variable-Ratio, Fixed-Interval, Variable-Interval

2.1.1.4.1. Fixed: when act is certain ( determinate)

2.1.1.4.2. Variable - when act is flexible depending on the situation (indeterminate)

2.1.1.4.3. Ratio - based on frequency of behaviour

2.1.1.4.4. Interval - based on difference in time

2.1.2. Punishment

2.1.2.1. Positive

2.1.2.1.1. Adding an adverse stimuli in response to an observed behaviour.

2.1.2.2. Negative

2.1.2.2.1. Taking away something desirable in response to an observed bahaviour.

2.1.3. Law of Effect by Thorndike: People tend to practice behaviours that have a positive outcome and ignore behaviours that may cause a negative outcome.

3. Social/Observational Learning

3.1. When a person observes and imitates another's behaviour. Albert Bandura studied this behaviour with his famous "Bobo Doll" Experiment.

3.1.1. 4 requirements for observational learning

3.1.1.1. Attention

3.1.1.1.1. The model should be appealing to the learner.

3.1.1.2. Retention

3.1.1.2.1. Clarity and meaning of the model is required by the learner.

3.1.1.3. Motor Reproduction

3.1.1.3.1. The learner should be able to replicate the model.

3.1.1.4. Reinforcement

3.1.1.4.1. If the model is reinforced, it enhances the effects of learning.