Theories of Creativity

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Theories of Creativity by Mind Map: Theories of Creativity

1. 4 P's

1.1. Person

1.1.1. Lombroso - degenerate brain theory

1.1.2. Rank - artist or man of will and deed

1.1.3. Jung - 2 types of creative people

1.1.3.1. psychological type - draws from human consciousness

1.1.3.2. visionary type - primordial experience

1.2. Process

1.2.1. Torrence - resembles steps in the scientific method

1.2.2. Wallas Stages - preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification

1.2.3. Creative Problem Solving

1.2.4. Perkins - generation, selection, and preservation of ideas

1.2.5. Koestler - combining ideas

1.3. Product

1.3.1. focus on originality

1.3.2. Barron - ability to respond adaptively to new approaches and products

1.4. Press

1.4.1. Freud's theory - superego or social conscience

1.4.2. Rogers - psychological safety or creative climate to encourage creative thinking

1.4.3. Rhodes - innovation in response to social needs and environment but offer a proper technical heritage

1.5. Persuasion

1.5.1. Simonton

1.5.2. 5th P

2. Self-Actualization

2.1. Maslow

2.1.1. self-fulfillment

2.1.2. 15 characteristics of self-actualized people

2.1.3. self-actualized vs. special talent (extraordinary creative talent in art, literature, music, theater, etc.

2.2. Growth Theory

2.2.1. one grows in self-actualization

2.3. Measures

2.3.1. POI, POD, SI, ROSE, ROSY, and the Maslowian Scale

2.3.2. relationship between self-actualization and measures of creativity

3. Self-Actualization Approach

3.1. Self-actualization = mental health of psychological growth

3.2. Maslow

3.2.1. self-actualized creativity - mentally healthy

3.2.2. special talent creativity - strong creative talent with or without mental health

3.3. Rogers

3.3.1. psychological safety - environment

3.3.2. internal locus of evaluation - self- confidence and independence

3.3.3. willingness to toy with ideas

3.3.4. openness to experience - receptiveness to new ideas

4. Psychoanalytic Theories

4.1. Freud

4.1.1. focus on the motivation to create

4.1.2. continuation of and substitute for free play of childhood

4.1.3. outcome of an unconscious neurotic conflict

4.2. Kris

4.2.1. motivated by 2 main instincts of id (libido and aggressive instincts)

4.2.2. "Eureka!" experience

4.3. Kubie

4.3.1. conscious processes rooted in reality

4.3.2. unconscious - hidden, lost, and repressed leads to style and content

4.3.3. preconscious - where creative activity takes place

4.4. Rugg

4.4.1. off-conscious: thinking in the "transliminal chamber"

5. Behavioristic and Learning Theories

5.1. Skinner

5.1.1. no such thing as creativity

5.1.2. behavior triggered by environment

5.2. Maltzman

5.2.1. increase original behavior by rewarding it

5.2.2. dead fish approach

5.3. Staats

5.3.1. unrelated stimuli can elicit a creative response combination

5.3.2. complex stimulus control

5.4. Mednick

5.4.1. mental associations

5.4.1.1. highly creative people - large numbers of verbal and non-verbal mental associations

5.4.2. Remote Associates Test (RAT)

6. Contemporary Theories

6.1. Sternberg

6.1.1. 3 facet model - intelligence, cognitive style, and personality/motivation

6.2. Amabile

6.2.1. 3 part model - domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant skills, and task motivation

6.3. Csikszentmihalyi

6.3.1. 3 part theory - creative person, person's domain, and the field

6.3.2. 3 elements interact to produce true creativity

6.4. Gardner

6.4.1. 8 multiple intelligences

6.4.2. adopts Csiksgentmihalyi's 3 part definition of creativity

6.4.3. extremely restrictive

6.5. Simonton

6.5.1. link to Gardner - people are creative if they impress others

6.5.2. link to Campbell - 3 core assumptions

6.6. Investment Theory

6.6.1. Sternberg and Lubart - invest in personal creativity to profit personally

6.6.2. Walberg - people are capital assets to themselves

6.6.3. Gardner - capital of creativity

6.6.4. Interactionist Model of Creative Behavior flowchart

6.7. Interactionist Model of Creative Behavior

6.7.1. emphasis on person and environment

6.7.2. (A) antecedent conditions, (O) organism, (P) personality traits, (CS) abilities and thinking styles, (CI) contextual influences, (SI) social influences, (B) behavior itself

6.7.3. value in the components and how they work together to form creativity

6.8. Implicit Theories

6.8.1. Runco - theory that exists in your mind

6.8.2. Evaluate the creativeness of a contribution

6.8.3. creativity lower in other countries where obedience is valued higher than individual development

6.9. Interdisciplinarity

6.9.1. contrast between art and science

6.9.2. creativity in a variety of contexts