PSYCH207 Final Exam

Psychopharmacology of a variety of drugs, and the neurotransmitter systems through which they effect the body and brain.

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PSYCH207 Final Exam by Mind Map: PSYCH207 Final Exam

1. Neurotransmitter Systems

1.1. Cannabinoids

1.1.1. Types Synthetic Cannabinoids Potent factory produced chemicals sold as incense Phytocannabinoids THC CBD CBGa More: cannabinol, N-alkamide, etc Endocannabinoids Receptors Neurotransmitters New Topic

1.2. Adenosine

1.2.1. Antagonized by caffeine

1.2.2. Agonized by acetate ethanol -> acetaldehyde -> acetate

1.3. Opioids

1.3.1. Endogenous Opioid System Endogenous Opioid Receptors Kappa-opioid Delta-opioid Mu-opioid NOP-R How opioids inhibit pain Post synaptic inhibition Axoaxonic inhibition Presynaptic Autoreceptors Periaqueductal Gray Endogenous Opioid Neuropeptides Endorphins Nociceptin Proenkephalin Dynorphin

1.3.2. Exogenous Opioid System

1.4. GABAergic

1.4.1. Purkinje cell GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum Found to be associated with endocannabinoid release

1.4.2. LSD LSD and alcohol have opposite effects on the GABA system Alcohol binds as a positive modulator to GABAa to inhibit GABA release LSD agonizes serotonin receptors on GABA neurons 5HT2A Rs increase activity of glutamate and GABA neurons ^ glutamate -> ^ PFC activation ^ GABA -> dec. sensory info filtering

1.4.3. Benzos increase GABA effect

1.5. Serotonergic

1.5.1. Metabolite: 5-HIAA Heavy MDMA users have lower 5-HIAA levels in CerSpinFluid suggesting less serotonin production in their NSs

1.5.2. SSRIs

2. Drugs

2.1. Psychostimulants

2.1.1. Types Ephedra Derived from medicinal herb Amphetamine Synthesized in lab Methamphetamine Derived from ephedrine in the lab Methylphenidate Improves the action of catecholamines in the brain Cathinones Cocaine

2.1.2. Pharmacokinetic Properties Administration Therapeutic: oral Recreational: intravenous, insufflation, inhalation Biotransfomation Active metabolites produced in liver Elimination Half-life length: methamphetamine > amphetamine >methylphenidate >cathinones >

2.1.3. Addiction Treatment Types Disulfiram Modafinil Imipramine Topirimate Vaccinations Risk Factors Stages of Recovery Abstinence Relapse

2.2. Psychedelics

2.2.1. MDMA Characteristics Enactogen: means "touching within" Empathogen: means "enhanced empathy" Use most common among high school and college students Developed during efforts to develop amphetamine derivatives Hallucinogen-stimulant Therapeutic Use First clinical trial for MDMA published relatively recently. Mithoefer and colleagues (2011) reported that MDMA assisted therapy for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The DEA scheduling not only eliminated all therapeutic MDMA use but also for practical purposes precluded clinical studies with MDMA. Although dependence doesnt build normally, half of MDMA users meet criteria for substance use disorder Pharmacodynamics Effects Half life: 9 hours Pharmacokinetics Deficiencies in the CYP2D6 enzyme (such as those caused by taking certain SSRIs) lead to accumulation of MDMA in the body. Studies Chronic usage is toxic to monkeys (Hatzidimitriou 1999) MDMA users do worse on verbal working memory tasks that may fail to improve over time (Brown 2010) MDMA shares subjective effects with d-amphetamine, and mCPP (Tancer & Johanson, 2003) Monkeys self administer MDMA less than meth indicating lower reinforcing effects (Fantegrossi 2002)

2.2.2. LSD Characteristics Non-addictive by any criteria Users are hyper-suggestible Ergot that grows on rye discovered in 1943 by Hoffman Tested on interrogating prisoners, use as a chemical weapon, psychotherapy Pharmacokinetics Metabolized in liver Half life of 3 hours but can last up to 12 hours Oral administration is very small doses Serotonin receptor agonist with some DA receptor affinity Human lethal dose of 14 grams Pharmacodynamics Effects on Brain Structure Subjective Effects Addiction Studies Marsh Chapel Experiment (Doblin) Stimulus generalization between LSD, psilocybin, and DMT in rats (Winter 2007)

2.2.3. Psilocybin Psilocybin makes offenders less likely to commit more crimes (Leary et al)

2.2.4. Salvia Divinorum History First documented in 1939 but it took longer to be identified to the Mazetec secrecy over the growing sites Very few wild plants can be found in the wild because the plant produces few viable seeds even when it does flower Subjective Effects Rapid Onset Rated by participants as very much to exptremely intense Uniqueness from normal experience Hallucinations Depersonalization Loss of perceived control over thoughts and actions Distorted body ownership Altered reality monitoring; inability to track concensus reality while immersed in the experience Papers Dynorphins Regulate Fear Memory: from Mice to Men (Bilkei-Gorzo et al 2012) The subjective experience of acute, experimentally-induced Salvia divinorum inebriation (Addy et al., 2015)

2.2.5. DMT posterior cingulate cortex activation PSC: central node of default mode network Studies suggest it can cause thinning of PCS

2.3. Alcohol

2.3.1. Pharmacodynamics Effects Behavioral Effects Adverse Effects Physiological Effects (MOA) Addiction Tolerance Withdrawal Treatments

2.3.2. Characteristics Standard drink = 14grams of pure alcohol Sumerians used alcohol as a vehicle for medicines

2.3.3. Pharmacokinetics Highly soluble in water and fat so easily absorbs into tissue Metabolism 95% in liver 5% released by lungs Absorption Highly soluble in water and fat

2.3.4. History 18th Amendment 21st Amendment

2.3.5. Addiction Type I (>25) Type II (< 25) Physiological Dependence Associated with increased glutamate NMDA receptors and decreased GABAa receptors

2.4. Marijuana

2.4.1. Pharmacodynamics Effects Physiological Subjective Adverse

2.4.2. Pharmacokinetics Absorption Joint - 50% Vape - 80% Edibles - 25-20%

2.4.3. Medical Uses Cancer Tentative evidence for using medical marijuana to treat cancer Marinol and Sativex prescribed to treat chemo patients Multiple Sclerosis Sativex 1:1 THC:CBD reduced spasticity Sativex is currently approved in the United Kingdom, Spain, and Canada for the treatment of muscle spasms and stiffness in multiple sclerosis. Anti-inflammatory effect can help with overactive immune system (same with arthritis) Parkinsons Cannabis can reduce the side effects of Parkinsons medication HIV/AIDS Reduces neuropathic pain Anorexia Treated with marinol Stimulates appetite Glaucoma Reduces intraocular pressure

2.4.4. Epilepsy CBD and THC reduce frequency and severity of seizures by unclear mechanisms

2.4.5. Addiction Tolerance Regular users find tolerance to many of the behavioral and subjective effects

2.5. Caffeine

2.5.1. Pharmacodynamics Tolerance develops for positive effects A1 and A2 adenosine antagonist Effects Physiological Behavioural Adverse Effects Withdrawal

2.5.2. Pharmacokinetics Active Metabolites Theophylline Theobromine Paraxanthine Oral administration Absorbed across intestinal walls Peak effects at 40 minutes after ingestion Metabolized in the liver

2.6. Nicotine

2.6.1. Characteristics Belongs to the xanthine family Cigarettes are neurodegenerative, nicotine itself has some moderate neuroprotective benefits Because of upregulation, acute effects of nicotine differ greatly from chronic effects

2.6.2. History Religious use by Mayans, Incas, Aztecs Widespread use in 1600s when introduced to Europe Doubts about health outcomes in the 1700s Early 20th century - focus on adverse effects

2.6.3. Administration Absorbed by mouth, throat, lungs Inhalation is most effective Peak absorption Cigarettes: 5-7 minutes Other methods: 20-30 mins

2.6.4. Pharmacokinetics Crosses BBB Eliminated in urine Metabolized in liver Active Metabolite: cotinine Mentholation slows metabolism

2.6.5. Effects Causes NS dysfunction in small animals and used as incesticide Effects negative for naive users and positive for habitual users Chippers (social smokers) don't show this effect Positive Subjective Effects

2.6.6. Risks Risks conveyed in second and third hand smoke Increased pregnancy complications Increased cancer and cardiovascular disease risk Nitrosamines increased rate of pulmonary disease Emphysema

2.6.7. Pharmacodynamics Desensitizes receptors and cholinergic agonist at nicotinic receptors Nicotine and acetylcholine compete for binding Cells upregulate acetylcholine receptors and multiply Acute tolerance effect, first cig of the day is strongest Distribution of Nicotinic Receptors PNS CNS

2.7. Opiates

2.7.1. Terminology Natural Narcotics Morphine Codeine Thebaine Semisynthetic Narcotics Heroin Hydromorphone Oxycodone Desomorphine (Krokodil) Etorphine Synthetic Narcotics Laudanum Pentazocine Meperidine Fentanyl Methadone LAAM Harrison Act

2.7.2. Pharmacodynamics Nociception Ascending pathway Descending pathway Subjective Effects Rush: rapid onset euphoria High: feelings of joy and ease Nod: calm, disinterest, unawareness Straight: Normalcy Objective Effects Cough reflex suppression Opioid Overdose Dysphoria, restlessness, anxiety, and nausea Constipation

2.7.3. History

2.7.4. Treating Addiction Tolerance/Withdrawal cAMP Maintenance/Replacement RadioLigand Binding Assay Detoxification Long Term Short Term Rapid Ultra-rapid

2.7.5. Pharmacokinetics Absorption/Metabolism

3. Brain Structures

3.1. Forebrain (Prosencephalon)

3.1.1. Telencephalon Basal Ganglia The Reward Circuit Cerebral Cortex Lobes

3.1.2. Diencephalon Globus pallidus Ventral pallidum Thalamus

3.2. Midbrain (Mesencephalon)

3.3. Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon)

3.3.1. Metencephalon Pons Cerebellum

3.3.2. Myelencephalon Medulla