Research methods

Psychology Chapter 1 overview/revision

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Research methods by Mind Map: Research methods

1. 1.1.Experiments

1.1. Experimental design

1.1.1. Independent measures design

1.1.2. Repeated measures design

1.1.3. Matched pairs design

1.2. Types of experiments

1.2.1. Laboratory experiments

1.2.2. Field experiments

1.2.3. Natural experiments

1.3. Ethics in experiments

1.3.1. Informed consent

1.3.2. Right to withdraw

1.3.3. Privacy

1.3.4. Confidentiality

2. 1.2.Self-reports

2.1. Questionnaires

2.2. Interviews

3. 1.3.Case studies

4. 1.4.Observations

4.1. Naturalistic observation

4.2. Controlled observation

4.3. Unstructured observation

4.4. Structured observation

4.5. Participant observer

4.6. Non-participant observer

4.7. Overt observer

4.8. Covert observer

4.9. Non-participant observer

5. 1.5.Correlations

5.1. Positive correlation

5.2. Negative correlation

6. 1.6.Research processes

6.1. Aims

6.2. Hypotheses

6.2.1. Non-directional hypotheses

6.2.2. Directional hypotheses

6.2.3. Null hypotheses

6.3. Selection of research method

6.4. 1.7.Variables details

6.4.1. Control of variables

6.4.2. Standardisation

6.5. 1.10.Ethical considerations

6.5.1. Ethical guidelines relating to human participants

6.5.1.1. Informed consent

6.5.1.2. Protection (physical and psycological)

6.5.1.3. Right to withdraw

6.5.1.4. Deception

6.5.1.5. Confidentiality

6.5.1.6. Privacy

6.5.1.7. Debriefing

6.5.2. Ethical guidelines relating to the use of animals

6.5.2.1. Replacement

6.5.2.2. Species and strain

6.5.2.3. Number of animals

6.5.2.4. Procedures: pain and distress

6.5.2.5. Housing

6.5.2.6. Reward, deprivation and aversive stimuli

6.5.2.7. Anaesthesia, analgesia and euthanasia

6.6. 1.8.Selection of participants

6.6.1. Opportunity sampling

6.6.2. Volunteer (self-selected) sampling

6.6.3. Random sampling

6.7. 1.9.Analysis and conclusion

6.7.1. Types of data

6.7.1.1. Quantitative data

6.7.1.2. Qualitative data

6.7.2. Data analysis

6.7.2.1. Measures of central tendency

6.7.2.1.1. The mode

6.7.2.1.2. The median

6.7.2.1.3. The mean

6.7.2.2. Measures of spread

6.7.2.2.1. The range

6.7.2.2.2. The standard deviation

6.7.2.3. Graphs

6.7.2.3.1. Bar charts

6.7.2.3.2. Histograms

6.7.2.3.3. Scatter graphs

6.7.2.3.4. The normal distribution curve

6.8. 1.11.Evaluation

6.8.1. Reliability

6.8.2. Validity

6.8.3. Generalisability