Chapter 7: Sexuality

Mind Mapping Study Guide Chapter 7: Sexuality

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Chapter 7: Sexuality by Mind Map: Chapter 7: Sexuality

1. Understanding Sexuality

1.1. Sex: Biological Issue

1.1.1. *More than having sex

1.1.1.1. Sex: the distinction between female and male

1.1.1.1.1. Primary Sex Characteristics: Difference in genitals

1.1.1.1.2. Secondary Sex Characteristics: bodily development that distinguishes biologically mature male/ female.

1.1.1.1.3. Intersexual People (Hermaphrodite): Have both male and female characteristics. Can display one trait externally and the other internally.

1.1.1.1.4. Transsexual People: Feel one sex even though they are biologically the other.

1.1.2. *Sex is not the same thing as gender

1.1.2.1. Gender: part of culture, personal traits and pattern of behavior (responsibilities, privileges, and opportunities)

1.2. Sex: Cultural Issue

1.2.1. *Varies from one society to another

1.2.1.1. Modesty: If disturbed while in a state of undress women from different cultures may react differently.

1.2.1.2. PDA: Some cultures like in the U.S many people kiss in public where as in China it's only in private.

1.3. Incest Taboo

1.3.1. *Forbids sexual relations or marriages between certain relatives

1.3.1.1. Reproduction between close relatives can lead to mental or physical problems

1.3.1.2. Would confuse kinship lines

1.3.1.3. Requiring marriage outside of family serves to integrate the larger society when forming new families.

2. Sexual Attitudes in the United States

2.1. *Many believe that people should be able to do as they wish so long as they don't hurt others.

2.1.1. *Alfred Kinsly set the stage for the sexual revolution by publishing the first study on sexuality.

2.2. The Sexual Revolution

2.2.1. The 1960s were the beginning of the sexual revolution where people began to realize sex was a part of people's lives married or not.

2.2.2. Changed women's behavior and allowed more opportunities for women.

2.3. The Sexual Counterrevolution

2.3.1. *By the 1980s the response of the sexual revolution was fading.

2.3.2. Conservatives called for "family values."

2.3.2.1. Disapproved unmarried couples living together

2.3.2.2. Unmarried couples having children

2.3.2.3. "Free love"

2.4. Premarital Sex

2.4.1. *26% consider premarital sex always wrong or almost always wrong.

2.4.1.1. *16% sometimes feel it's wrong

2.4.1.1.1. *57% say its not wrong at all

2.4.2. Common belief is younger people engage in oral sex because no risk or pregnancy and isn't as serious as "going all the way"

2.5. Sex Between Adults

2.5.1. *Varies in the U.S population

2.5.2. *1/3 adults report having sex with partner a few times a year or not at all

2.5.2.1. *1/3 adults report having sex once or several times a year

2.5.2.1.1. *1/3 adults report having sex a couple or a few times a week.

2.6. Extramarital Sex

2.6.1. *90% consider adultery wrong all the time

2.6.1.1. *16% report being unfaithful (21% higher in men than women) and is higher among younger couples

3. Sexual Orientation

3.1. Product of Society

3.1.1. *People of any society attach meanings to sexual activity.

3.1.1.1. The public as a whole began defining people as homosexuals

3.1.2. *Sexuality is not fixed by human biology but is socially constructed.

3.1.2.1. Patterns of homosexuality differ from one society to another

3.2. *Romantic and physical attraction to another person

3.2.1. Heterosexuality: Attraction to someone of the other sex

3.2.1.1. Emerged as norm because allows for reproduction.

3.2.2. Homosexuality: Attraction to someone of the same sex

3.2.2.1. 1.9% of men and 1.3% of women identify themselves as partly or entirely sexual

3.2.3. *Medical professionals described homosexuals as "sick" and sometimes sent them to mental hospitals.

3.2.3.1. *1975 the APA no longer considered homosexuality a sickness and considered it a sexual behavior.

3.2.3.1.1. *Homophobia: Discomfort over close personal interaction with people thought to be gay.

3.2.4. Asexuality: Lack of sexual attraction to people of either sex

3.2.5. Bisexuality: Sexual attraction to both sexes

3.3. *Sexual attraction is not the same thing as sexual behavior

3.4. Product of Biology

3.4.1. Links orientation to the structure of the brain.

3.4.1.1. Le Vay found important difference in size of hypothalamus (hormone center) between heterosexuals and homosexuals

3.4.2. Genetics may also influence sexual orientation

3.4.2.1. A study found a distinctive pattern on the X-chromosome.

3.4.2.2. Epigenetic theory of sexual orientation: Caused by biological development after birth involving hormones and the brain.

4. Sexual Issues and Controversies

4.1. Teen Pregnancy

4.1.1. *There are roughly 526,000 Teen pregnancies

4.1.1.1. Those who live without both parents or in some other arrangement have 3x the odds of pregnancy by 19.

4.1.1.2. Low-level of parent education and income increase the chance of sexually active and have an unplanned child.

4.2. Pornography

4.2.1. *60% of U.S adults are concerned that sexual materials lead to a breakdown of morals.

4.2.1.1. Some critics claim it's the cause of violence against women.

4.2.1.2. Seen as a power issue because most of it degrades women.

4.3. Prostitution

4.3.1. *Most common in poor countries where patriarchy is strong and cultural norms limit women's ability to earn a living.

4.3.1.1. Most consider their work degrading

4.3.1.2. Sex trade submits women to kidnapping, emotional abuse, and violence and spreads STDs.

4.3.2. *Considered a victimless crime

4.4. Sexual Violence: Rape and Date Rape

4.4.1. *Rape is a violent act that uses sex to hurt, humiliate, or, control another

4.4.1.1. Rape: Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person without the consent of the victim

4.4.2. *A common myth is that rape involves strangers

4.4.2.1. 80% of known rapes involve people who knew one another.

4.4.3. *A common myth about date rape is women must have encouraged the man and made him think she wanted to have sex.

4.4.3.1. Date Rape/ Acquaintance Rape: Sexual violence against victims by people they know

5. Theories of Sexuality

5.1. Structural-Functional Theory

5.1.1. *Highlights the contribution of any social pattern to the overall operation of society.

5.1.1.1. From a biological point of view sex allows our species to reproduce. But cultural and social institutions regulate with whom people reproduce.

5.2. Symbolic-Interaction Theory

5.2.1. *Highlights how, as people interact, they construct everyday realities.

5.2.1.1. Sometimes people construct very different realities, so the views of one group or society may well differ from those of another.

5.3. Social-Conflict and Feminist Theories

5.3.1. *Point to sexuality as the root of conflict between women and men. Defining women in sexual terms amounts to devaluing them from full human beings into objects of men's interest and intensions.

5.3.1.1. The gender-conflict or feminist approach highlights dimensions of inequality. This approach shows how sexuality both reflects patterns of social inequality and helps perpetuate them.

5.3.2. The reproductive justice movement points out that many women are disadvantaged to the point that they really are not able to make choices about their own lives.

5.4. Queer Theory

5.4.1. *A body of research findings that challenges the heterosexual bias in U.S society.

5.4.1.1. Begins with the claim that our society is characterized by hetreosexism.