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1. g. Joint Application Development (JAD)

1.1. A popular fact-finding technique that brings users into the development process as active participants.

1.2. - A JAD team usually meets over a period of days or weeks to analyze the existing system, obtain user input and expectations, and document user requirements for the new system.

1.3. - The JAD group usually has a project leader, who needs strong interpersonal and organizational skills, and one or more members who document and record the results and decisions.

2. 1.2.2 Explain System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) activities:

2.1. a. Planning

2.1.1. - First phase in the systems development process. It identifies whether or not there is the need for a new system to achieve a business’s strategic objectives.

2.1.2. The purpose of this step is to find out the scope of the problem and determine solutions.

2.2. b. Analyze

2.2.1. The second phase is where businesses will work on the source of their problem or the need for a change.

2.2.2. The second phase is where businesses will work on the source of their problem or the need for a change.

2.3. c. Design

2.3.1. The third phase describes, in detail, the necessary specifications, features and operations that will satisfy the functional requirements of the proposed system

2.4. d. Development

2.4.1. Fourth phase is when the real work begins—in particular, when a programmer, network engineer and/or database developer are brought on to do the major work on the project.

2.5. e. Testing

2.5.1. The fifth phase involves systems integration and system testing (of programs and procedures)—normally carried out by a Quality Assurance (QA) professional—to determine if the proposed design meets the initial set of business goals.

2.6. f. Implementation

2.6.1. Sixth phase is when the majority of the code for the program is written. Additionally, this phase involves the actual installation of the newly-developed system.

2.7. g. Maintenance

2.7.1. Seventh and final phase involves maintenance and regular required updates. This step is when end users can fine-tune the system, if they wish, to boost performance, add new capabilities or meet additional user requirements.

3. 1.2.3 Describe various types of life cycle models such as:

3.1. a. Waterfall model

3.1.1. Represents the system in terms of data and the processes that objects that act upon that data.

3.2. b. Spiral Model

3.2.1. Each iteration, or phase, of the model must have a specific goal that is accepted, rejected, or changed by the user, or client.

3.3. c. Iterative and incremental development

3.3.1. Develop a system through repeated cycles (iterative) and in smaller portions at a time (incremental), allowing software developers to take advantage of what was learned during development of earlier parts or versions of the system.

3.4. d. Agile Model

3.4.1. Attempt to develop a system incrementally, by building a series of prototypes and constantly adjusting them to user requirements

3.5. e. Prototyping model

3.5.1. Prototyping tests system concepts and provides an opportunity to examine input, output, and user interfaces before final decision are made.

3.6. f. Rapid Application Development (RAD)

3.6.1. A team-based technique that speeds up information systems development and produces a functioning information system.

3.6.2. - Is a complete methodology, with a four-phase life cycle that parallels the traditional SDLC phases.

3.6.3. - Companies use RAD to reduce cost and development time, and increase the probability of success.

4. 1.2.4 Identify appropriate life cycle models based on given scenario

5. 1.3 Understand Project Management

5.1. 1.3.1 Explain project planning, scheduling, monitoring, and reporting.

5.2. 1.3.2 Explain steps in project planning.

5.3. 1.3.3 Describe work breakdown structures, task patterns, and critical path analysis.

5.3.1. TASK PATTERN -Tasks in a work breakdown structure must be arranged in a logical sequence called a task pattern.

5.3.2. CRITICAL PATH ANALYSIS -A critical path is a series of tasks which, if delayed, would affect the completion date of the overall project. If any task on the critical path falls behind schedule, the entire project will be delayed.

5.4. 1.3.4 Create a work breakdown structure.

5.4.1. - Work breakdown structure (WBS) involves breaking a project down into a series of smaller tasks

5.4.2. - A work breakdown structure must clearly identify each task and include an estimated duration. A task, or activity, is any work that has a beginning and an end and requires the use of company resources such as people, time, or money.

5.5. 1.3.5 Explain techniques for estimating task completion times and costs.

5.6. 1.3.6 Explain leadership and project manager.

5.6.1. - Good leadership is essential in building up an information system project.

5.6.2. - In a systems project, the project manager, or project leader, usually is a senior systems analyst or an IT department manager if the project is large

5.6.3. - A project coordinator handles administrative responsibilities for the team and negotiates with users who might have conflicting requirements or want changes that would require additional time or expense.

6. 1.1 Discuss Information System.

6.1. 1.1.1 Define information and information system.

6.1.1. Data that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users.

6.1.2. Combines information technology, people and data to support business requirement.

6.2. 1.1.2 Describe information system components.

6.2.1. 1. Hardware Is the physical layer of the information system

6.2.2. 2. Software - System software - Application software - Enterprise applications

6.2.3. 3. Data - Tables store data - Linked tables work together to supply data

6.2.4. 4. Processes - Describe the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results

6.2.5. 5. People - Stakeholders - Users, or end users

6.3. 1.1.3 Identify various types of information system.

6.3.1. 1. Executive Information Systems

6.3.2. 2. Decision Support Systems

6.3.3. 3. Management Information Systems

6.3.4. 4. Transaction Processing Systems

7. 1.2 Discuss system development approach.

7.1. 1.2.1 Explain system development method

7.2. a. Structured Analysis

7.2.1. - A traditional systems development technique that is time tested and easy to understand.

7.2.2. - Uses a series of phases to plan, analyze, design, implement and support an IS.

7.3. b. Object Oriented Analysis

7.3.1. Analyzing, designing an application, system.

7.4. c. Agile/Adaptive Method

7.4.1. An iterative, incremental method of managing the design and build

7.4.2. As the agile process continues, developers revise, extend, and merge earlier versions into the final product.

7.4.3. An agile approach emphasizes continuous feedback, and each incremental step is affected by what was learned in the prior steps.

8. 1.2.5 Describe project management activities:

8.1. a. planning

8.1.1. Identifying all project tasks and estimating the completion time and cost of each

8.2. b. scheduling

8.2.1. Involves the creation of a specific timetable, usually in the form of charts that show tasks, task dependencies, and critical tasks that might delay the project.

8.3. c. monitoring

8.3.1. Requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload. The project manager must monitor the progress, evaluate the results, and take corrective action when necessary to control the project and stay on target.

8.4. d. reporting

8.4.1. Includes regular progress reports to management,users, and the project team itself. Effective reporting requires strong communication skills and a sense of what others want and need to know about the project.