Reported speech

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Reported speech by Mind Map: Reported speech

1. Statements

1.1. Present simpl ~ past simple

1.1.1. I like your new bag,said lan:~ lan said he like my new bag

1.2. Present perfect progressive ~ past perfect progressive

1.2.1. Andy said, I 've been waiting for an hour.~ Andy said he had been waiting for an hour.

1.3. Past simple ~ past perfect simple

1.3.1. Lars said, I saw a bear behind the tree.~ Lars said he had seen a bear behind the tree.

1.4. Present progressive ~ past progressive

1.4.1. Alan said: i’m having a shower~ alan said he was having a shower

1.5. “Will~would” “can~could” “may~might” must~had to”

1.6. “Here~there” “tomorrow~the next day” “ago~before” “next week~the following week”

1.7. Present perfect simple ~ past perfect simple

1.7.1. Tim said, I've read this book,~ Tim said he had read that book

1.8. “Today/tonight~that day/that night” “yesterday~the day before” “now~then”

2. Commands and requests

2.1. . The imperative changes to full infinitive or not + full infinitive.

2.2. Don't tell anyone, please,' Laura said.~ Laura asked me not to tell anyone.

2.3. Be quiet, children, said Ahmed. ~ Ahmed told the children to be quiet

3. Reported questions

3.1. The verbs in reported questions are in the affirmative form.

3.1.1. Why did you go to the doctor? he asked.~ He asked me why I had gone to the doctor,

3.2. If the direct question begins with a question word, the reported question also begins with the same question word.

3.2.1. Where are you going? he asked~. He asked me where I was going

3.3. If the direct question does not begin with a question Word, the reported question begins with if or whether.

3.3.1. Did you enjoy the presentation? he asked~ He asked me if/whether I had enjoyed the presentation.

3.4. Note: When we change questions from direct to reported speech, pronouns, tenses, adverbs, etc. change in the same way as in reported statements.