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1. Old Master

1.1. Explicative master - creates distance between student and master. Stultifies and causes ignorant to remain so

1.1.1. Stultifying - cause (someone) to appear foolish or absurd

1.1.2. "Socrates interrogates a slave who is destined to remain one." Demonstration of knowledge -> of powerlessness socrates takes the slave by the hand, the slave can never walk by himself because the explicator guides, he chooses what knowledge the student has the student can never be equal then to a master explicator "This may be the path to learning, but it is in no way a path to emancipation"

1.2. Pedagogical myth - believed by majority of Old Masters. Separates intelligence into higher and lower intelligence. Master should impart the knowledge on the student (hierarchy)

1.2.1. Higher intelligence - that of the master or authority

1.2.2. Lower intelligence - that of the student

1.2.3. "explication is the myth of pedagogy"

2. Equal Intelligence

2.1. Every person has equal intelligence

2.1.1. Learning the mother tongue as a child does not rely on explication, rather observation and immitation

2.2. "The only verified intelligence is the one that speaks to a man capable of verifying the equality of their intelligence. The superior mind condems itself to never being understood... Consider the scholar... he spends his life conversing with someone who cannot understand him."

2.2.1. The "superior" intelligence does not allow itself to gain any knowledge at all because it does not allow others to verify what they have learned.

2.3. Different lies in the strength of will

2.3.1. people can choose to learn nothing at all

2.3.2. does not necessitate equal learning

2.4. Intelligence =/ knowledge

2.4.1. Intelligence - each person acts, tells what he is doing, and gives the verifying the reality of this actions

2.5. Panecastic Philosophy

2.5.1. verify that the same intelligence is put to work to verify the equality of intelligence

3. Jacotot

3.1. Did not believe in the hierarchy of intelligence

3.2. Experimented

3.2.1. Showed that one could teach anything without knowing subject matter at all. Taught Telemaque despite not knowing French

3.3. Telemaque - there was no need for the master in the processo

3.4. "The ignorant person will learn by himself what the master doesnt know if the master believes he can and obliges him to realize his capacity; a circle of power homologous to the circle of powerlessness that ties the student to the explicator of the old method."

3.4.1. teaches nothing, but his students learn nonetheless.

4. Will > Explication

4.1. Relationships

4.1.1. Should be between the will of the master and the will of the student

4.1.2. Should be between the knowledge of the book and the knowledge of the student

4.2. Students get to exercise their own will, which is influenced but not controlled by the will of the master

4.2.1. Master must always remind students of their potential and choices

4.3. "the act of an intelligence obeying only itself even while the will obeys another will -- emancipation"

4.4. "two wills and two intelligences. We will call their coincidence stultification."

5. Material instead of/as Master

5.1. A book is a center to which one can attach what one learns. One can both find and understand new things

5.2. Book can be a totality

5.3. The emancipatory master recognizes that it is his will not his explication that teaches a student (that is that one can learn from reading a book)

5.4. A material thing is the only bridge of communication between two minds. The bridge is a passage, but also a distance maintained.

5.5. Book allows the master to verify if the student has paid attention

5.5.1. Master verifies that the student has searched

6. Circle of Power

6.1. ignorant person learning what the master doesnt know through will of the master

6.1.1. 1 intelligence, 2 wills

6.2. can only take effect by being made public

6.3. "Universal teaching," meaning learning something without any means of having it explained

6.3.1. "In reality, universal teaching has existed since the beginning of the world, alongside all the explicative methods. This teaching, by oneself, has, in reality, been what has formed all great men"

6.3.2. Not a method for instructing the people; it was a benefit to be announced to the poor; they could do everything any man could. It sufficed only to announce it"

6.4. naturally, a master believing that he can teach as successfully what he doesn't know

6.4.1. devaluation of his science

6.4.2. ignorant one does not believe himself capable of learning by himself

6.4.3. therefore, the circle of emancipation must be begun

6.5. The emancipated can become emancipators

6.5.1. The emancipated do not give the key to knowledge to others, but rather the consciousness of what intelligence can do when it considers itself equal to any other each ignorant person could become for another ignorant person the master who would reveal to him his intellectual power

7. Circle of Powerlessness

7.1. always already there: very workings of the social world

7.2. a student can only learn from an explicative master

7.3. the pedagogical myth

7.3.1. stultifies because the student is powerless in the face of the master

7.3.2. "explication is the myth of pedagogy" stultifies people

8. Understanding as Translating

8.1. "Understanding is never more than translating, that is, giving the equivalent of a text but in no way it's reason."

8.1.1. There is no need for anything more than the written page we must know what it means by language, but not necessarily by reason

8.1.2. No need for the language of the master, no language of the language whose words and sentences are able to speak the reason of the words and sentences of a text

8.2. Finnish students spoke about Telemaque using only the words of Telemaque

8.3. "Learning and understanding are two ways of expressing the same act of translation."

8.3.1. There is nothing beyond texts except the will to express, that is, to translate.

8.3.2. learning and understanding are two ways of putting text into our own words which is just translating

8.4. "understanding a language is the capacity to say what one thinks in the words of others"

8.4.1. translating is more than just changing words ability to express text in the way you understand it

8.4.2. the capacity to say what one thinks in the words of others