Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States 379 U.S. 241 (1964)

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Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States 379 U.S. 241 (1964) by Mind Map: Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States 379 U.S. 241 (1964)

1. Facts

1.1. Parties

1.1.1. Heart of Atlanta Motel

1.1.2. United States

1.2. What Happened

1.2.1. The owner of a large motel in Atlanta, Georgia, refused to rent rooms to African Americans

1.2.2. The motel owner claimed his business "private" and not engaged in interstate commerce

1.2.3. He claimed that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority to regulate commerce by enacting the statute

1.2.4. The motel owner brought an action in a federal district court to have the Civil Rights Act of 1964 declared unconstitutional

1.3. Procedural History

1.3.1. The district court ruled that the Civil Rights act did not violate the Constitution

1.3.1.1. The district court prohibited the owner of the motel from discriminating on the basis of race

1.3.2. The motel owner appealed

1.3.2.1. The case went to the United States Supreme Court.

2. Issue before the Court

2.1. Can private businesses be forced to abide by the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

2.2. Is the Fourteenth Amendment being violated?

2.2.1. The Motel Owner claims he is being forced in to not being able to choose his own customers

2.3. Is the Fifth Amendment being violated?

2.3.1. Owner claims his property is being "taken" away and he is being forced to forgo rights to control his own property without just compensation

3. Rule of Law

3.1. Commerce Clause

3.1.1. Purpose of Commerce Clause

3.1.1.1. Congress

3.1.1.1.1. Allocates Power to Congress for regulating commerce among states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes

3.1.1.1.2. Addresses the problems of interstate trade barriers and the ability to enter into trade agreements

3.1.1.1.3. Gives Congress the power to legislate

3.1.1.2. Any Limitation/Flexibility?

3.1.1.2.1. Supreme Court has the flexibility to influence the balance of state versus federal power

3.2. Fourteenth Amendment

3.2.1. No discrimination against African Americans or other minorities.

3.3. Fifth Amendment

3.3.1. Equal protection. Government cannot enact laws that treat similarly situated individuals differently

4. Application

4.1. Court Overview

4.1.1. Does Congress have the power to enforce authority over businesses that affects interstate commerce?

4.1.1.1. Court response

4.1.1.1.1. Location and nature of the business

4.1.1.1.2. Nature of the business

4.1.2. Fourteenth Amendment - Does the business discriminate against race, religion, minority (other)?

4.1.2.1. Court reponse

4.1.2.1.1. Basis of Constitution of the Civil Rights Act

4.1.2.1.2. The motel is classified as a place of public accommodation

4.1.3. Violation of the Fifth Amendment?

4.1.3.1. Court response

4.1.3.1.1. Is there any "taking" of property by the Government for public use?

4.1.3.2. Motel Owners response

4.1.3.2.1. Argues his right to operate and manage his own property was being taken away from him unjustly without fair compensation

5. Conclusion

5.1. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination in places of public accommodation is a proper exercise of Congress’s Commerce Clause authority

5.2. Oral argument

6. Impact

6.1. The case of Wickard v. Filburn

6.1.1. Filburn violated the Agricultural Adjustment Act.

6.1.1.1. Produced extra wheat and used for his own, thus violating Interstate commerce

6.1.1.1.1. Court response

6.2. The case of United States v. Darby Lumber Co

6.2.1. Darby violated the Fair Labor Standards Act. Failed to comply with minimum wage and hour requirements for employees

6.2.1.1. He challenged the violation, claiming the regulation on intrastate wages and hours did not fall within the commerce powers of Congress

6.2.1.1.1. The District Court found the Act was beyond the powers of Congress because it attempted to regulate hours and wages of employees in local manufacturing activities

7. Importance

7.1. Discrimination is unethical at all levels

7.2. Business operations cannot reach their full potential if the business encourages discrimination

7.3. Diversity promotes open exchange of ideas and increase in talent pool

7.4. Businesses contribute to the economy of the country

8. Influence

8.1. Restaurant Industry

8.2. Travel Industry