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1. Beccaria

1.1. propose a

1.1.1. Proper proportion between Crimen Punishment

2. Same sentence have different effects of different people

3. What it is?

3.1. The scientific study of crime

3.2. Thinking about science as meaning a method of investigation

4. Multidisciplinarity

4.1. Psychologist

4.2. Psychiatrist

4.3. Statisticians

4.4. Economist

4.5. Nutrionist

4.6. Architects


5.1. Crime

5.1.1. is an action freely chosen

5.2. Law & order debate

5.2.1. two views Hobbes Pessimistic Rousseau Liberal softer

5.3. Locke

5.3.1. is the Law that gave men

5.4. Bentham

5.4.1. believed that the pain of punishment should exceed the


6.1. Biological

6.1.1. Sheldon body types of young men Endomorphs Mesomorphs Ectomorphs

6.1.2. extra male chromosome may lead to an aggresive male criminal person

6.1.3. Eye colouring

6.1.4. IQ eight points of difference between "Normal" people Convicted offenders

6.1.5. Biochemical factors sexual hormones adrenaline blood sugar cholesterol

6.2. Psychological

6.2.1. Behaviour is a Function of

6.2.2. Eysenk 3 dimensions of personality (E) Introversion-extroversion (N) Neuroticism (P) Psychotism

6.2.3. Freud super ego and ego mental illness weak conscience

6.3. Sociological

6.3.1. Durkheim considered that

6.3.2. Felson a burglary requires an absence of suitable guardians a likely offender a suitable target

6.3.3. Crime Brantinghams knowledge of areas Rex & Moore difficulties by groups there

6.3.4. Wilson & Kelling produced their Broken windows hypothesis


7.1. based on the idea that

7.1.1. people would commit crimes if left to their own devices

7.2. Hobbes

7.2.1. believed that

7.2.2. It is fear that makes people obey laws

7.3. Toby

7.3.1. introduced the Stake in conformity young people had

7.4. Nye

7.4.1. family as source of control

7.5. Theory of Reckless

7.5.1. describes forces that push people into crime those that restrain them

7.6. Hirschi

7.6.1. social groups strong bonds control weakened or broken bonds crime

7.7. Gottfredson & Hirschi

7.7.1. theory of crime lack of self control opportunities



8.2. Crime and punishment

8.3. White collar crime

8.4. Public disorder

8.5. Victimology

8.6. Statistics about crime

8.7. Police role and crime prevention