Human Development

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Human Development by Mind Map: Human Development

1. The Brain

1.1. Studied though MRI and Electroencephalogram.

1.2. Has "sensitive Periods" Visual- 6 months Cognitive - 1 year

1.3. Neurotranmitters essentially tell brain cells what to do when they reach the synapse.

1.4. Environment (stress) can in fact change neurochemistry.

1.5. Brain Plasticity can affect both adaptability and vulnerability.

2. Attachment Maltreatment and the Brain

2.1. Attachment is formed between child and their primary caregiver.

2.2. formed attachment can be either secure or insecure depending on child-caregiver relationship.

2.3. Harry Harlow explored attachment through his monkey study.

2.4. Maltreatment (neglect) can affect the brain and its growth.

2.5. Maltreatment, Trauma and Abuse: High stress Difficulty focusing Poor executive functioning Hyper vigilance Poor emotional regulation/highly reactive Psychic numbing Shut down (disassociation) (Rosati, 2019)

2.6. Long Term Affects: Psychological and physical problems (personality disorders, depression) More likely to use drugs and alcohol More likely to end up in prison More likely to end up in psychiatric system Less able to manage stable relationships Do worse educationally Do worse employment-wise (Rosati, 2019)

3. Temperamnet

3.1. Plays a major role in Developmental outcome of individual

3.2. Biological function

3.3. Experiences as well as temperament affect ones personality

3.4. Temperament is studied by observing behaviour

3.5. Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess - 9 Characteristics: Sensitivity, activity level, intensity of reaction, approach/withdrawal, rhythmicity/ regularity, adaptability, persistence, distractibility, mood (Rosati, 2019)

3.6. Temperament is grouped into three main categories: Difficult, slow to warm and Easy.

3.7. High and Low Reactivity

4. Self Regulation

4.1. Defined as "Self-regulation refers to the energy expended when we respond to stress and the recover." (Rosati, 2019)

4.2. Temperament and self regulation go hand in hand as temperament will determine how we handle stress

4.3. Self regulation and self control are two separate topics

4.4. Misbehaviour and stress behaviour. misbehaviour is caused by child opting to act one way as opposed to another. stress behaviours are caused by stress and the child not being able to cope and self regulate

5. Impact of Technology: Socio-Emotional

5.1. Technology and social network is creating an increase in loneliness

5.2. Self disclosure becomes an addiction, privacy is removed and we become addicted to how many comments, tags or likes we can get.

5.3. “social networking harnesses and promotes a potentially vicious biochemical cycle whereby evolutionary forces ensure that humans feel good when they are combatting loneliness – mediated by release of dopamine when sharing self with others” “Junk food for the brain” (harmless in moderation but deleterious if you overindulge) (Rosati, 2019)

6. Impact of Technology: Cognative

6.1. Passive versus active.

6.1.1. Passive: very minimal stimulation of the brain

6.1.2. Active: minimal brain stimulation but does stimulate dopamine and rewards thus creating an addiction

6.2. Affects children's aggression levels

6.3. Negatively affects language. Creates fuzzy thoughts and fuzzy language "uhmmmm....ahhh......"

6.4. Takes children away from nature