Yarnell & Bohrnstedt

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Yarnell & Bohrnstedt by Mind Map: Yarnell & Bohrnstedt

1. Lit Review

1.1. Large body of research supports that students, particularly Black students, perform better when matched with teacher of same racial/ethnic background

1.1.1. Gender match may also play a role, particularly for males

1.1.2. Believed to potentially be due to “passive” (primarily due to racial “match”) and “active” (due to specific techniques and actions such as expectation setting and referral to G&T programs) teacher effects

1.1.3. Criticism of studies have varied, including conflicting findings, issues with how “improvement” is operationalized and failure to account for the role of overall school culture versus classroom-specific effects

2. Methods

2.1. Current study attempts to address these concerns using Multilevel Structural Equation Modely (MSEM)

2.1.1. “the…framework used here has the unique ability to properly parcel individual from cluster-level effects to address the multiple ways that a cluster characteristic, such as a teacher’s race, may interact with an individual characteristic, such as student race”

2.1.2. “MSEM is argued to offer the unique ability to parcel variables and effects into unbiased Level 1 and Level 2 components and accordingly investigate interactions that may occur at each of these levels”

2.2. Study based on 4th grade NAEP reading assessment (time when achievement gap is most salient)

2.3. Large sample size (172,230 students taught by 25,340 teachers in 7,250 schools)

3. Findings/Conclusions

3.1. Overall findings showed reduced scores for Black children, with data supporting that this was caused by match

3.1.1. Stronger association for Black males; namely, Black females appeared to benefit from Hispanic or Black teachers

3.1.2. "...the negative association of Black male and Black female student group membership with achievement was strongest in classrooms taught by White teachers."

3.2. Authors argue data supports their conclusion about both active and passive effects

4. Questions

4.1. What is the role of gender match in these outcomes?

4.2. Do we run the risk of promoting de facto segregation if we become too focused on these outcomes?

4.3. Are "passive" teacher effects a plausible idea? If so, how do we explain them?

4.4. What mechanism causes these differences in performance? Stereotype threat? Others?

4.5. Why are Black females seemingly less susceptible to some of these negative outcomes?