Globalization

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Globalization by Mind Map: Globalization

1. what it is

1.1. Giddens 1993: world has moved towards Global 'single social system' wherein everyone is interdependent

1.2. OECD: defines globalization as "The geographic dispersion of industrial and service activities, for example research and development, sourcing of inputs, production and distribution, and the cross-border networking of companies, for example through joint ventures and the sharing of assets."

1.3. • in intro: Marshall McLuhan Coined the expression "global village" and predicted the World Wide Web 30 years before it was invented. - Information technology heighten awareness - Force people to become more involved with one another from various social groups and countries.

2. Against

2.1. companies have too much power and they can take over small nations

2.2. too power full- link with above: coca-cola-2001 Sinaltrainal v. Coca-Colabthree union leaders killed in culumbia. they lost but likely due to it being outside of the US

2.3. increased educational competition through pisa etc which leads to a focus on that rather than improving student lives

2.4. McWorld Benjamin Barber: everyone becomes the same and as such diversity decreases

2.4.1. - Peace and prosperity at the cost of independence and identity - Jihad - offering solidarity and protecting identity by waging war against outsiders - Separatists seek to assert subnational identities through force - McWorld likely to win in the long term

2.5. intro: reed, class interest and profit-making. This is the view that James Petras and Henry Veltmeyer hold in their book “Gobalisation unmasked” 2001 (web link- http://www.spectrezine.org/reviews/Petras.htm).

2.6. white washing through cultural hegemony: such as people living in hurts- who's to say they aren't happy

2.7. takes away skilled labour from developed countires and abses the labour of the developing

2.8. 1. Inequality: Globalisation has been linked to rising inequalities in income and wealth. Evidence for this is a rise in the Gini-coefficient and a growing rural–urban divide in countries such as China, India and Brazil. This leads to political and social tensions and instability as a backlash.

2.8.1. : Strong demand for food and energy has caused a steep rise in commodity prices. Food price inflation (known as agflation) has placed millions of the world's poorest people at great risk.

2.9. macro economics: 3. Macroeconomic Instability: A decade or more of strong growth, low interest rates, easy credit in developed countries created a boom in share prices and property valuations. The bursting of speculative bubbles prompted the credit crunch and the contagion from that across the world in from 2008 onwards. This had negative effects on poorer & vulnerable nations.

2.10. stopping competition as there are mega corporations

2.11. protectionist issues

2.12. Beck - Risk society - ecological disaster, nuclear war, international economic breakdown - Expert knowledge no longer provide authoritative means of eliminating these risks - Proliferations of competing expert claims undermines public confidence in experts - People are increasingly knowledgeable but more skeptical about scientific claims

2.12.1. Hall One response to globalization is the attempt to preserve traditional cultures, or create hybrid cultures - Migration an important cause of cultural change - New cultural formations arise from the need of migrants for 'translation' between the society the have left and the one they now live in.- leads to terrorism. this should be own branch

3. positive

3.1. it's inevitable given the increase in communication and opportunities people want, and so it must be worked on rather than stopped

3.2. it gives people more opportunities to try new things and allows the poor to have mroe options, though globalization cultural opportunities are presented

3.3. increased communication humanizes people to one another and as such brigs about more understanding

3.4. freedom to go places and have yours own opporunities which were once not there

3.5. ngos can help create national standards of rights such as the geneva convention but there was not signed by the usa showing this flaw

3.6. human rights are more likely to be watched out for

3.7. 1. Trade enhances division of labour as businesses and countries specialise in areas of comparative advantage actually allows for more jobs such as in china- jim riley argues that chinese wages are actually increasing as they now have more demand than supply

3.8. less monopoly? 3. Competitive markets reduce monopoly profits and incentivize businesses to seek cost-reducing innovations and improvements in what they sell – this leads to an improvement in dynamic efficiency

3.9. general theorists

3.9.1. Anthony Giddens - Modernity is inherently globalizing - World capitalist economy - The nation state system - The world military system - International division of labour

3.9.2. doesnt even really exist: Paul Hirst and Graham Thompson - Globalization a myth - Those who claim that globalization is new and all pervasive have failed to produce evidence - Defenders of globalization fail to provide clear definition that distinguishes a global from an international economy - They are selective in the evidence they use to support their claims - Their analysis lack historical depth - Present highly internationalized economy is less open and integrated than in 1870 - 1914 (volume of global trade stayed at a growth of 3.4 - 3.6 percent)

3.9.3. Stanley Hoffmann - Little evidence that globalization has radically altered the role of the state in international affairs - Domestic pressures force state to act in spite of external constraints - Three features of contemporary politices - Global governance remain weak - Globalization has not profoundly challenged the enduring national nature of citizenship - Threat of war is still a feature of contemporary world.

3.10. The OECD Growth Project found that a 10 percentage-point increase in trade exposure for a country was associated with a 4% rise in income per capita over time

3.11. 5. Globalisation has helped many of the world's poorest countries to achieve higher rates of economic growth and reduce the number living in extreme poverty – for example, significant progress has been made in China and India and notable in a number of sub-Saharan African countries whose annual growth of real GDP has often exceeded 10%

3.12. war avaoidance but hoffman disagrees

4. world policing

5. environment

6. Kenichi Ohma good and a gloablist

6.1. people countries are less individual and they are more parts of larger grouos such as the eu, the millitary and bureaucrats of a country are less important

6.2. there are more communication technologies as a result of the economic stimulation and call for more technology to improve transprot etc

6.3. 8. Governments are no longer able to control information coming into their country, and thus they cannot control demand for foreign goods. If people see better standards of products being produced and consumed abroad they want them, and governments are increasingly powerless to prevent international trade in goods. According to Ohmae, this is not only good for the consumer, but good for the economy as well.

6.4. 10. Ohame believes that role and function of the nation state today is limited to that of producing the conditions in which consumers, worker and corporations can thrive in a global economy. They are still necessary to provide an infrastructure such as roads and legal system, for example

7. Held - State power has been reconfigured - Shift from sovereign state to liberal international sovereignty - Liberal international sovereignty - Rules of warfare and weaponry: The Geneva Convention - War crimes and the individual: The Nuremberg Trials - Human Rights: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Democracy: United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

8. traditionalist theories- it's exagerated

8.1. . Trade is not truly global, it is regional. For example, about 60% of EU trade is within the EU. And Sub Saharan Africa is largely left out of global trade flows 2. Transnational Corporations do not operate in all countries, only secure ones. 3. Billions of people still live mostly subsistence lifestyles and simply cannot afford to take part in globalised western style consumption.Local traditions still remain in many cultures – For example it is estimated that 90% of women in Somalia have been circumcised. See the following video links for examples of traditional cultures. 5. Some countries remain cut off from ‘global democratic and military force’ – e.g. North Korea and Iran. Also some traditional cultures still practice abuses that go against the UNDHR – see 7 below. 6. Governments still have the power to censor social media – e.g. the great firewall of China