Introduction to System Analysis & Design

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Introduction to System Analysis & Design by Mind Map: Introduction to System Analysis & Design

1. Discuss Information System

2. Define information and information system

2.1. Infrormation is data that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users. Example : an order processing system that displays an order form.

2.2. Information system combines information technology, people and data to support business requirements. Information System have 5 components which are hardware, software, data, processes and people.

3. Describe information system components

3.1. Hardware

3.2. Software

3.3. Data

3.4. Processes

3.5. People

4. Identify various types of information system

4.1. Transaction Processing Systems

4.2. Management Information Systems

4.3. Decision Support Systems

4.4. Executive Information Systems

5. Discuss system development approach

6. Explain system development method

6.1. Structured Analysis

6.1.1. A traditional systems development technique that is time tested and easy to understand. Uses a series of phases to plan, analyze, design, implement and support an IS.

6.2. Object Oriented Analysis

6.2.1. A popular technical approach for analyzing, designing an application, system, or business by applying the object-oriented paradigm and visual modeling throughout the development life cycles to foster better stakeholder communication and product quality.

6.3. Agile/Adaptive Method

6.3.1. Refers to an iterative, incremental method of managing the design and build activities of engineering, information technology and other business areas that aim to provide new product or service development in a highly flexible and interactive manner.

7. Explain System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) activities:

7.1. Planning

7.1.1. This is the first phase in the systems development process. It identifies whether or not there is the need for a new system to achieve a business’s strategic objectives

7.2. Analyze

7.2.1. The second phase is where businesses will work on the source of their problem or the need for a change. In the event of a problem, possible solutions are submitted and analyzed to identify the best fit for the ultimate goal(s) of the project.

7.3. Design

7.3.1. The third phase describes, in detail, the necessary specifications, features and operations that will satisfy the functional requirements of the proposed system which will be in place.

7.4. Development

7.4.1. The fourth phase is when the real work begins in particular, when a programmer, network engineer and/or database developer are brought on to do the major work on the project.

7.5. Testing

7.5.1. The fifth phase involves systems integration and system testing (of programs and procedures) normally carried out by a Quality Assurance (QA) professional to determine if the proposed design meets the initial set of business goals.

7.6. Implementation

7.6.1. The sixth phase is when the majority of the code for the program is written. Additionally, this phase involves the actual installation of the newly-developed system.

7.7. Maintenance

7.7.1. The seventh and final phase involves maintenance and regular required updates.

8. Describe various types of life cycle models such as:

8.1. Waterfall model

8.1.1. Represents the system in terms of data and the processes that objects that act upon that data.

8.2. Spiral model

8.2.1. Was suggested in the 1990s by Barry Boehm, a noted software engineering professor. He stated that each iteration, or phase, of the model must have a specific goal that is accepted, rejected, or changed by the user, or client.

8.3. Iterative and incremental development

8.3.1. Develop a system through repeated cycles (iterative) and in smaller portions at a time (incremental), allowing software developers to take advantage of what was learned during development of earlier parts or versions of the system

8.4. Agile or Adaptive Methods

8.4.1. Agile methods attempt to develop a system incrementally, by building a series of prototypes and constantly adjusting them to user requirements

8.4.1.1. Advantages- can allow developers to be much more flexible and responsive

8.4.1.2. Disadvantages- Riskier than more traditional methods. For example, without a detailed set of system requirements, certain features requested by some users might not be consistent with the company’s main business

8.5. Prototyping Model

8.5.1. Prototyping tests system concepts and provides an opportunity to examine input, output, and user interfaces before final decision are made

8.6. Rapid Application Development (RAD)

8.6.1. A team-based technique that speeds up information systems development and produces a functioning information system

8.6.1.1. Advantages- Systems can be developed more quickly with significant cost savings

8.6.1.2. Disadvantages- RAD stresses the mechanics of the system itself and does not emphasize the company’s strategic business needs

8.7. Joint Application Development (JAD)

8.7.1. A JAD team usually meets over a period of days or weeks to analyze the existing system, obtain user input and expectations, and document user requirements for the new system

9. Identify appropriate life cycle models based on given scenario

10. Describe project management activities

10.1. Planning includes identifying all project tasks and estimating the completion time and cost of each

10.2. Scheduling involves the creation of a specific timetable, usually in the form of charts that show tasks, task dependencies, and critical tasks that might delay the project. Scheduling also involves selecting and staffing the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members. Project scheduling uses Gantt charts and PERT/CPM charts

10.3. Monitoring requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload. The project manager must monitor the progress, evaluate the results, and take corrective action when necessary to control the project and stay on target

10.4. Reporting includes regular progress reports to management, users, and the project team itself. Effective reporting requires strong communication skills and a sense of what others want and need to know about the project.

11. Understand Project Management

12. Explain project planning, scheduling, monitoring, and reporting.

13. Explain steps in project planning

14. Describe work breakdown structures, task patterns, and critical path analysis

15. Create a work breakdown structure

16. Explain techniques for estimating task completion times and costs

17. Explain leadership and project manager

17.1. In a systems project, the project manager, or project leader, usually is a senior systems analyst or an IT department manager if the project is large. An analyst or a programmer/analyst might manage smaller projects. In addition to the project manager, most large projects have a project coordinator. A project coordinator handles administrative responsibilities for the team and negotiates with users who might have conflicting requirements or want changes that would require additional time or expense.