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1. What is Information System

1.1. information

1.1.1. data that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users

1.2. Information Systems

1.2.1. Combines information technology, people and data to support business requirements

1.3. The main components of information systems

1.3.1. hardware the physical layer of the information system

1.3.2. software System software Application software Enterprise applications

1.3.3. Data Tables store data Linked tables work together to supply data

1.3.4. Processes Describe the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results

1.3.5. People Stakeholders Users, or end users

1.4. Types of Information system

1.4.1. Pyramid Diagram of Organizational levels and information requirements.

1.4.2. Decision Support System (DSS)

1.4.3. Management Information System (MIS)

1.4.4. Transaction Processing System (TPS)

1.4.5. Artificial intelligence techniques in business

1.4.6. Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)

2. System Development Approaches

2.1. system development method

2.1.1. Structured Analysis

2.1.2. Object Oriented Analysis

2.1.3. Agile/Adaptive Method

3. Appropriate life ncycle models

4. Understand Project Management

4.1. Planning

4.2. Scheduling

4.3. Monitoring

4.4. Reporting

5. Project management activities

6. SDLC activities

6.1. Planning

6.1.1. This is the first phase in the systems development process. It identifies whether or not there is the need for a new system to achieve a business’s strategic objectives.

6.1.2. This is a preliminary plan (or a feasibility study) for a company’s business initiative to acquire the resources to build on an infrastructure to modify or improve a service.

6.1.3. The company might be trying to meet or exceed expectations for their employees, customers and stakeholders too.

6.1.4. The purpose of this step is to find out the scope of the problem and determine solutions.

6.1.5. Resources, costs, time, benefits and other items should be considered at this stage.

6.2. Analyze

6.2.1. The second phase is where businesses will work on the source of their problem or the need for a change.

6.2.2. In the event of a problem, possible solutions are submitted and analyzed to identify the best fit for the ultimate goal(s) of the project.

6.2.3. This is where teams consider the functional requirements of the project or solution.

6.2.4. It is also where system analysis takes place or analyzing the needs of the end users to ensure the new system can meet their expectations.

6.2.5. Systems analysis is vital in determining what a business’s needs are, as well as how they can be met, who will be responsible for individual pieces of the project, and what sort of timeline should be expected.

6.3. Design

6.3.1. The third phase describes, in detail, the necessary specifications, features and operations that will satisfy the functional requirements of the proposed system which will be in place.

6.3.2. This is the step for end users to discuss and determine their specific business information needs for the proposed system. It"s during this phase that they will consider the essential components (hardware and/or software) structure (networking capabilities), processing and procedures for the system to accomplish its objectives

6.4. Development

6.4.1. The fourth phase is when the real work begins—in particular, when a programmer, network engineer and/or database developer are brought on to do the major work on the project.

6.4.2. This work includes using a flow chart to ensure that the process of the system is properly organized.

6.4.3. The development phase marks the end of the initial section of the process.

6.4.4. Additionally, this phase signifies the start of production. The development stage is also characterized by instillation and change.

6.4.5. Focusing on training can be a huge benefit during this phase.

6.5. Testing

6.5.1. The fifth phase involves systems integration and system testing (of programs and procedures)—normally carried out by a Quality Assurance (QA) professional—to determine if the proposed design meets the initial set of business goals.

6.5.2. Testing may be repeated, specifically to check for errors, bugs and interoperability.

6.5.3. This testing will be performed until the end user finds it acceptable.

6.5.4. Another part of this phase is verification and validation, both of which will help ensure the program’s successful completion.

6.6. Implement

6.6.1. The sixth phase is when the majority of the code for the program is written. Additionally, this phase involves the actual installation of the newly-developed system. This step puts the project into production by moving the data and components from the old system and placing them in the new system via a direct cutover. While this can be a risky (and complicated) move, the cutover typically happens during off-peak hours, thus minimizing the risk. Both system analysts and end-users should now see the realization of the project that has implemented changes.

6.7. Maintenance

6.7.1. The seventh and final phase involves maintenance and regular required updates.

6.7.2. This step is when end users can fine-tune the system, if they wish, to boost performance, add new capabilities or meet additional user requirements.

6.7.3. In this phase, periodic maintenance for the system will be carried out to make sure that the system won’t become obsolete, this will include replacing the old hardware and continuously evaluating system’s performance, it also includes providing latest updates for certain components to make sure it meets the right standards and the latest technologies to face current security threats.

7. Various types of life cycle modelsa

7.1. Waterfall model

7.1.1. Represents the system in terms of data and the processes that objects that act upon that data

7.2. Spiral Model

7.2.1. Thus, each iteration produces feedback and enhancements, which enable the team to reach the overall project goal.

7.3. Iterative and incremental development

7.3.1. Develop a system through repeated cycles (iterative) and in smaller portions at a time (incremental), allowing software developers to take advantage of what was learned during development of earlier parts or versions of the system.

7.4. Agile Model

7.4.1. Agile methods attempt to develop a system incrementally, by building a series of prototypes and constantly adjusting them to user requirements.

7.5. Prototyping model

7.5.1. A prototype is an early working version of an information system.

7.6. Rapid Application Development (RAD)

7.6.1. is a team-based technique that speeds up information systems development and produces a functioning information system.

7.7. Joint Application Development (JAD)

7.7.1. is a popular fact-finding technique that brings users into the development process as active participants.