PRESENT TIME REFERENCE

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PRESENT TIME REFERENCE by Mind Map: PRESENT TIME REFERENCE

1. Finished

1.1. It's been snowing (resultative)

2. PRESENT SIMPLE

2.1. Extended

2.1.1. Goes to the past and future

2.1.1.1. - Eternal truths

2.1.1.2. - Jobs, profs and trades

2.1.1.3. - Routines, habits

2.1.1.4. -Likes and dislikes

2.1.1.5. -Mental states

2.1.1.6. -States

2.1.1.7. -Descriptions

2.1.1.8. -Timetables

2.2. Limited

2.2.1. Closer to the present

2.2.1.1. -Sports comentaries

2.2.1.2. -Instructions (using "you")

2.2.1.3. -Performative

2.2.1.4. -Feelings

3. PRESENT CONTINUOUS

3.1. Extended

3.1.1. -Annoying habiits

3.1.2. -Temporary actions or habits

3.1.3. -Description

3.2. Limited

3.2.1. -Repetition

3.2.2. -Ongoing actions (action now)

3.2.3. Sport commentaries (slow game)

3.2.4. -To show a process

3.3. Action verbs and state verbs (not common)

3.3.1. Verbs of likes and dislikes to express change or something temporary

3.3.2. Verb "to be" for temporary states

3.3.3. Verb "have" (when it is not expressing possession)

3.3.4. Verb "appear" meaning perform

3.3.5. Verbs of mental process

4. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

4.1. Can have all three time references

4.2. Up to now

4.2.1. Actions started in the past and continuous up to the present

4.2.1.1. Use "since" and "for"

4.3. Resultative past

4.3.1. An action that happened in the ást and affects the present

4.3.1.1. Use "already", "yet" and "just"

5. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

5.1. Is a contradiction (has two different aspects)

5.1.1. It's been snowing for hours (up to now)

5.2. Unfinished

6. SIMPLE PAST OR PAST CONTINUOUS

6.1. To express wishes/hypothetical ideas

6.1.1. Use: "I wish I...", "If I...", "If only I...", "It's (high) time...", "I'd rather you..." and "Imagine..." and "Suppose..."

6.1.1.1. If only I was taller - It's time you went home - I'd rather you weren't smoking here

7. WILL + INF.

7.1. To refer to (annoying) habits

7.1.1. She will phone me while I'm having dinner

7.2. Eternal truths

7.2.1. The sun will arise from the East

7.3. Predictable behaviour

7.3.1. That will be my mother *phone ringing*