Conceptual Map Chapter 8 Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs By David Salas

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Conceptual Map Chapter 8 Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs By David Salas by Mind Map: Conceptual Map Chapter 8  Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs    By David Salas

1. Antonyms Antonyms (opposite meaning) are an important tool when you are writing comparison/contrast paragraphs. similarities ≠ differences then ≠ now past ≠ current

2. Topic Sentences in Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs The topic sentence should name the topic (the two subjects that you are comparing or contracting) and indicate the controlling idea (whether the focus of the paragraph is on similarities, differences, or both). To understand 21st century education, let’s examine the similarities and differences between the schools of 50 years ago and the schools of today. When students are applying to colleges, they should consider differences in class size, academic standards, and tuition. The Olympics of ancient Greece and the Olympics of today have three key differences.

2.1. Supporting Sentences in Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs There are two ways of organizing them: 1. Point-by-point organization. You write about similarities and/or differences one main point (subtopic) at a time. 2. Block organization. You group all of the similarities together in one block and all of the differences together in one block.

2.2. Concluding Sentences in Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs The conclusion may repeat the topic sentence or restate similarities and differences. It may also give an opinion or recommendation. In conclusion, after students weigh the differences in quality and cost, they may decide to choose a smaller, less expensive college that nevertheless has high academic standards. To sum up, the ancient Olympics and the modern Olympics differ in their purpose, participants, and events.

3. Transition Signal for Comparison Transition signals to express similarity Signals to Show Similarities Sentence Coordinating Conj. Paired Conj. Subordinating Conj. Others connectors similarity and… (too) both … and as similar likewise not only… just as equal but also also the same too similar to equal to (just) like the same as

3.1. Sentence Connectors Also often appears in the middle or at the end. Don’t use also with semicolon. British English reverses the order of subjects and verbs in questions. American English also changes word order for questions. Too usually comes at the end of a sentence. It often appears together with the coordinating conjunction and. British English uses do and did for negative statements in the simple present and the simple past; American English uses these auxiliary verbs, too. British English uses do and did for negative statements in the simple present and the simple past; American English uses these auxiliary verbs too.

3.2. Paired Conjunctions They are always used together. The word that comes after the second conjunction must be the same part of speech (noun, verb, adverb, and so on) as the word that comes after the first conjunction. This is called parallelism. The vocabulary of British and American English is both colorful and large. The vocabulary of British and American English is not only colorful but also large. With prefixes, native speakers can create new words that are both logical and functional. The same suffixes appear both in British English and in American English.

3.3. Subordinating Conjunctions As is a subordinating word. It begins a dependent clause. The word just makes it stronger. You use comma even when the independent clause comes first. American English requires subject-verb agreement, as/just as British English does.

3.4. Others Similar, equal and the same as act like adjectives; that is they describe nouns. British English and American English sentences have similar patterns. Similar to, equal to, (just) like, and the same as act like prepositions. They come in front of nouns, noun phrases and pronouns to make prepositional phrases. Like British English, American English has formal grammar rules for academic writing. Equally is an adverb. It describes an adjective. British English and American English are equally complex.

4. Transition Signals for Contrast Transition signals you can use to express differences. Signals to Show Differences Sentence connectors Coordinating Conj. Subordinating Conj. Others in contrast but while different(ly) from on the other hand, yet whereas unlike however although differ (from) (in) even though though

4.1. Sentence Connectors In contrast, on the other hand, and however can be use as synonyms. In Great Britain, the letter a in the words path, laugh, aunt, plant, and dance is pronounced like the /a/ sound in father. In the United States, in contrast/on the other hand/however, the letter a in the same words is pronounced like the /a/ sound you hear from cat.

4.2. Coordinating Conjunctions Use but when the ideas are exact opposites. College are pre-university level in Great Britain, but they are university level in the United States. Use yet when one idea is surprising or unexpected continuation of the other idea. All in all, students of English will notice the differences between the language use in Britain and the United States, yet they are still learning the same language.

4.3. Subordinating Conjunctions Use while and always when the ideas are exact opposites. While and whereas can begin either clause. Always use a comma even when the independent clause comes first. British students theorize, analyze, and socialize, whereas American students theorize, analyze, and socialize. Use although, even though, or though when one idea is surprising or unexpected continuation of the other idea. Americans sometimes have difficulties traveling or living in England although they speak English. Although they speak English, Americans sometimes have difficulties traveling or living in England.

4.4. Others From and unlike are both prepositions. Put a noun or noun phrase after them. The way Americans pronounce the word better is different from the way British people do. Unlike the British, Americans pronounce the t in better and butter as a /d/ sound. Differently is and adverb. It describes the verb say Americans say many words differently from the way the British do. Differ is a verb. American English and British English differ in pronunciation. American biscuits and British biscuits differ.