Life Sciences: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

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Life Sciences: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics by Mind Map: Life Sciences: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

1. Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

1.1. By end of Grade 2

1.1.1. Animals:

1.1.1.1. Depend on their surroundings to get what they need

1.1.1.2. Depend on plants or other animals for food

1.1.1.3. Use their senses & their bodies

1.1.2. Plants:

1.1.2.1. Depend on air, water, minerals, and light to grow

1.1.2.2. Cannot move & often depend on animals for pollination or to move their seeds around.

1.2. By end of Grade 5

1.2.1. Food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants

1.2.2. Organisms are in food webs made of:

1.2.2.1. Consumers

1.2.2.2. Producers

1.2.2.3. Decomposers

1.2.3. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met

1.2.4. Healthy ecosystems are stable and balanced

1.3. By end of Grade 8

1.3.1. Organisms & Populations are dependent on their environments.

1.3.2. Organisms populations are limited by:

1.3.2.1. Resources

1.3.2.2. Predators

1.3.2.3. Mutually-beneficial interactions

1.4. By end of Grade 12

1.4.1. Ecosystems have limits

1.4.2. Fundamental tension: finite resources vs unlimited potential

2. Cycles of Matter & Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

2.1. By end of Grade 2

2.1.1. Organisms get what they need from the environment

2.1.2. Materials needed can be reused

2.2. By end of Grade 5

2.2.1. Matter cycles as organisms live and die

2.3. By end of Grade 8

2.3.1. Food webs show matter & energy flow

2.3.2. All atoms in the Ecosystem are recycled

2.4. By end of Grade 12

2.4.1. Photosynthesis & cellular respiration provide most all energy in Ecosystems

2.4.2. Levels of ecosystems are progressively inefficient as they get further up the food chain.

2.4.3. Chemical elements pass through food web and release into atmosphere

2.4.4. Carbon cycle makes up interactions at all levels

3. Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

3.1. By end of Grade 2

3.1.1. Where animals live:

3.1.1.1. Can change

3.1.1.2. Can effect life or death

3.2. By end of Grade 5

3.2.1. When an environment changes, organisms can:

3.2.1.1. move

3.2.1.2. survive

3.2.1.3. die

3.3. By end of Grade 8

3.3.1. Ecosystems are dynamic and can change over time

3.3.2. Changes can lead to shifts in populations

3.3.3. Biodiversity:

3.3.3.1. is the variety of species

3.3.3.2. shows health of ecosystem

3.4. By end of Grade 12

3.4.1. Modest change to ecosystem may have no impact

3.4.2. Extreme changes can alter ecosystems, especially anthropagenic changes

4. Social Interactions and Group Behavior

4.1. By end of Grade 2

4.1.1. Groups:

4.1.1.1. Serve many functions

4.1.1.2. Vary in size

4.2. By end of Grade 5

4.2.1. Groups:

4.2.1.1. Can vary in size, gender, and ages

4.2.1.2. Can be stable or fluid

4.2.1.3. Can have similar or quite unique tasks

4.3. By end of Grade 8

4.3.1. Groups:

4.3.1.1. Form based on genetic relation, proximity, or recognition

4.3.1.2. Use signalling to communicate

4.3.1.3. Dissolve for a variety of reasons

4.4. By end of Grade 12

4.4.1. Groups, including humans:

4.4.1.1. Have a strong desire for groups & will suffer if isolated

4.4.1.2. Form based on a variety of relationships

4.4.1.3. Are continually evolving