Chapter 9: Tense, aspect and modality

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Chapter 9: Tense, aspect and modality by Mind Map: Chapter 9: Tense, aspect and modality

1. Expressing location in time through the verb: tense

1.1. The meaning of tense

1.1.1. Present tense, past tense and future time

1.1.2. Stative and dynamic uses of verbs

1.2. Basic meaning of the present tense

1.2.1. The Instantaneous Present

1.2.2. The State Present

1.2.3. The habitual Present

1.3. Secondary meanings of the present tense: reference to past events

1.4. Basic meaning of Past tense

1.5. Secondary meanings of past tense: Present and future reference:

1.6. Referring to future events

1.6.1. Safe predictions

1.6.2. Programmed events

1.6.3. Intended events

1.6.4. Imminent events

1.6.5. Future anterior events

2. Past events and present time connected: Present Perfect and past perfect.

2.1. Present perfect aspect and past tense compared: anteriority vs definite time

2.2. Time adjuncts and Present perfect tense

2.3. Current relevance

2.4. Functions and discourse interpretations of the Present Perfect

2.4.1. The experiential Perfect

2.4.2. The continous Perfect

2.4.3. Implied meanings of the Present Perfect

2.5. The Past Perfect

2.5.1. Discourse interpretations of the past Perfect

2.6. Non-finite Perfect forms

3. Situation types and the Progessive aspect

4. Expressing attitudes towards the events: modality