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CONFEDERATION by Mind Map: CONFEDERATION

1. Victorian Era

1.1. Sarah Bernhardt lived during the Victorian Era. She was an actress and starred in the most popular French plays of the time.

1.2. Emily Stowe was the first female physician to practice in Canada. Emily was also an activist for women rights.

1.3. The Halifax Gazette was Canada's first newspaper. The first copy was released on March 23, 1752 and was published weekly in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

2. Canada East

2.1. George Etienne Cartier was a dominant figure in Canada East politics. He was also a Canadian statesman, leader of Parti Bleu, and was a father of Confederation.

2.2. Edward Whelen was a main delegate of P.E.I. to the Quebec Conference. He was also a father of Confederation, journalist, orator, and advocate for responsible government.

2.3. Leonard Tilley was another father of Confederation as well as a Canadian politician.

2.4. Louis Joseph Papineau was a seigneury landlord, lawyer, and politician in Canada. He was also elected speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada in the same year he became leader of Parti Canadien.

3. Canada West

3.1. Clear Grits were a group of reformers in Canada West in 1850.

3.2. John A Macdonald was the very first Prime Minister of Canada. John was also a dominant figure in Canadian Confederation, and he also had a political career spanning half a century.

4. Advantages to Confederation

4.1. EARS stands for Economic stability, Anexation, intercontinental Railway, Strong central government. EARS were the 4 main benefits that came with Confederation.

4.2. Representation by population is a way of Government where House of Commons seats are allocated and will vary with the population.

4.3. Double majority is a voting system where a majority of votes is required according to 2 different criteria.

5. Conferences

5.1. As a result of a shift in political ground, the Quebec Conference was held to discuss possible Canadian Confederation. It began on October 10 1864 and lasted over 2 weeks!

5.2. Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, P.E.I. It was mainly for British North American colonies to talk about Canadian Confederation in more detail.

5.3. The final conference in a series of conferences was held in London, U.K. This conference known as the London Conference was the final set of debates and meeting prior to Canadian Confederation

6. Confederation Achieved

6.1. The Great Coalition was a grand joining of political parties from Canada East and Canada West that brought the Canadas together. It was a very significant action towards achieving Confederation in Canada.

6.2. Charles Tupper led Nova Scotia into Confederation during his time as Premier. He was also known as a father of confederation and became the sixth Prime Minister of Canada in 1896.

6.3. JULY 1 1867, the day British Colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, united to create Canada. This is known as the Day of Confederation.