Wealth and Poverty Awareness

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Wealth and Poverty Awareness by Mind Map: Wealth and Poverty Awareness

1. Prevalance

1.1. What percentage of Canadians live in poverty?

1.1.1. 1 in 7 (or 4.9 million) people in Canada live in poverty.

1.2. How many Canadian children live in poverty?

1.2.1. In Canada, 1.3 million children live in conditions of poverty (that’s 1 in 5).

1.3. What province/territory is the poorest?

1.3.1. The poorest province in Canada is Prince Edward Island with a GPD per capita of 44,180(CAD$).

1.4. Who are the "working poor"?

1.4.1. The working poor are working people whose incomes fall below a given poverty line due to lack of work hours and/or low wages.

1.5. Which family type is the poorest?

1.5.1. According to the statistics, the poorest family type are single parents, specifically single mothers. 51.6% of lone parent families headed by women live in poverty.

2. Impact on Children

2.1. How does growing up in poverty impact a child's physical health?

2.1.1. At birth?

2.1.1.1. Maternal under nutrition during pregnancy increases the risk of negative birth outcomes, including premature birth, low birth weight, smaller head size and lower brain weight.

2.1.1.2. Inadequate food which can lead to food insecurity/hunger.

2.1.1.3. Chronic conditions such as asthma, anemia and pneumonia

2.1.2. In childhood?

2.1.2.1. Lack of access to healthy foods and areas for play or sports which can lead to childhood overweight or obesity

2.1.2.2. Risky behaviors such as drugs, smoking or engaging in early sexual activity.

2.1.2.3. Exposure to environmental contaminants. For instance: lead paint and toxic waste dumps.

2.1.2.4. Exposure to violence in their communities which can lead to trauma, injury, disability and mortality.

2.2. How does growing up in poverty impact a child's?

2.2.1. Educational success?

2.2.1.1. Poverty has a particularly adverse effect on the academic outcomes of children, especially during early childhood.

2.2.1.2. Chronic stress associated with living in poverty has been shown to adversely affect children’s concentration and memory which may impact their ability to learn.

2.2.1.3. The National Center for Education Statistics reports that in 2008, the dropout rate of students living in low-income families was about four and one-half times greater than the rate of children from higher-income families (8.7% versus 2%).

2.2.1.4. Under Resourced schools in poorer communities struggle to meet the learning needs of their students and aid them in fulfilling their potential.

2.2.2. Mental health?

2.2.2.1. Children living in poverty are at greater risk of behavioral and emotional problems.

2.2.2.2. Some behavioral problems may include impulsiveness, difficulty getting along with peers, aggression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder.

2.2.2.3. Some emotional problems may include feelings of anxiety, depression and low self-esteem.

2.2.2.4. Poverty is particularly difficult for parents who may experience chronic stress, depression, marital distress and exhibit cruel parenting behaviors. These are all linked to poor social and emotional outcomes for children.

2.2.2.5. Unsafe neighborhoods may expose poor children to violence which can cause a number of psycho-social and psychological difficulties. Violence exposure can also predict future violent behavior in youth which places them at greater risk of injury and mortality and entry into the juvenile justice system

2.3. What is meant by "poverty of opportunity"

2.3.1. Poverty of opportunity means people that are poor because of a lack of opportunities. They lack the necessary resources to get out of poverty, such as financial capital, education, or connections. In other words, impoverished individuals do not have access to economic and social resources as a result of their poverty.

2.4. What impact does poverty have on a child's emotional and social relationships?

2.4.1. Poor children are usually stigmatized and depicted as dirty. The society stigmatize poor children and associates them with problems such as delinquency, dysfunctional families and drug abuse.

2.4.2. Children show an understanding of the impact of poverty on their family and display sensitivity towards their parents such as not asking for money and undertaking paid work themselves to help the family finances.

2.4.3. Children living in poverty, in particular children in the middle to older age groups, are often unable to participate in social, leisure and celebratory activities, and are often unable to keep up with the latest fashion trends in clothing and grooming; which can adversely affect their friendships, self-esteem and may result in them feeling ashamed, excluded and even stigmatised.

3. Impact on Elderly

3.1. How does living below the poverty line impact and elderly person's health?

3.1.1. Without the safety net of hefty private savings or a stable pension income, an increasing numbers of Canadians will struggle to meet their basic living needs when they are no longer able to work.

3.1.2. Medical spending for those between the ages of 55 and 64 is almost twice the amount spent by those between the ages of 35 and 44.

3.2. What percentage of elderly Canadian citizens live in poverty?

3.2.1. According to statistics of 12.5% of Canadian seniors live in poverty and, 75000 more of seniors became low income.

4. Homelessness

4.1. What are some of the causes of homelessness in Canada?

4.1.1. The “Pathways into Homelessness” report found that 45% of primary causes of homelessness were financial, 26.7% are to be related to interpersonal conflicts and abuse, 17.7% due to drug and alcohol use, and 3.7% due to mental illness.

4.2. How many people are homeless in Canada?

4.2.1. In the State of Homelessness in Canada 2016 report, it was estimated that at least 235,000 Canadians experience homelessness in any given year. The actual number might be higher, considering that many people who are homeless may live with friends or relatives, and do not come into contact with emergency shelters.

4.3. Which province/territory has the most homeless?

4.3.1. Toronto, Ontario, has Canada’s largest homeless population.

4.4. Compare Canada's homeless rates with other developed countries?

4.4.1. The homeless ratios for developed countries are:

4.4.1.1. Canada - Homeless ratio: 0.09%(2013)

4.4.1.2. Australia - Homeless ratio: 0.49%(2016)

4.4.1.3. USA - Homeless ratio: 0.17%(2017)

4.4.1.4. UK - Homeless ratio: 0.46%(2016)

4.4.1.5. Norway - Homeless ratio: 0.07%(2016)

5. Gender Differences

5.1. Compare the female poverty rate to the male poverty rate?

5.1.1. About 12% of all Canadian women, and 11% of Canadian men live in poverty.

5.2. Why are woman more likely to live in poverty?

5.2.1. In 2015, women spent an average of 3.6 hours per day doing unpaid household work, which is 50% more than the 2.4 hours that men spent doing the same tasks.

5.2.2. About 70% of women in dual-parent families with a child under the age of five also work outside the home. Women are more likely than men to sacrifice career opportunities and advancement for better work-life balance.

5.2.3. In order to balance their domestic responsibilities, many women choose part-time, seasonal, contract, or temporary jobs. Most of these jobs are low paid, with no security, few opportunities for advancement, and no health benefits.

5.3. Female headed lone-parent families are most likely to be poor than male headed lone-parent families. Why?

5.3.1. Single mothers are more likely to work in low wage jobs. This means they will gain less money.

5.3.2. Single mothers are usually maintaining children by themselves. They need to pay for their education, food, health etc.

5.3.3. Women carry most of the responsibility for caring for young children and elderly adults in Canada. This means that more women work part-time, and has a life-long effect on women’s income.

5.3.4. Women who work full-time make only 71% of their male counterparts. Furthermore, female dominated professions tend to be less well paying.