Pedagogy Map - growing general capabilities within a history classroom.

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Pedagogy Map - growing general capabilities within a history classroom. by Mind Map: Pedagogy Map - growing general capabilities within a history classroom.

1. Personal and Social Capability

1.1. Personal and social capability develops within students as they learn to understand themselves and others. They begin to be able to manage their relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. Social and personal capabilities help students in a range of practices including recognising and regulating emotions, developing empathy for others and understanding relationships,establishing and building positive relationships, making responsible decisions, working effectively in teams. handling challenging situations constructively and developing leadership skills.

1.1.1. General capabilities - recognising emotions, recognising personal qualities and achievements, understanding themselves as learners, developing reflective practices, expressing emotions appropriately, developing self-discipline and setting goals, working independently and showing initiative, becoming confident resilient and adaptable, appreciate diverse perspectives, contribute to civil society, understand relationships, communicate effectively, work collaboratively, make decisions, negotiate and resolve conflicts, develop leaderships skills.

1.1.2. students with well developed social and emotional skills will find it easier to manage themselves, relate to others, develop resilience and a sense of self-worth, engage in team work and feel overall more positive about themselves. These capabilities are essential in any aspect of a students education and it underlines the basis of who they end up becoming as an individual. The key ideas for social and personal capabilities are split into four sections, Self-management, Self-awareness, social management and social awareness, which are all critical in forming students ability to manage any of their capabilities. Personal and social capabilities are highly important within a History class as students not need to understand different perspectives of past historians, cultures and societies, but they also need to have the ability to process some of the confronting emotions they my have to experience. As there many be students from all different cultures and societies, students need to be aware of their actions and opinions and overall mindful that their peers may feel hurt or very strongly against what they feel. As History can be such a difficult topic for some students of certain cultures and family backgrounds, it is important for all students to have personal and social general capabilities when learning about different periods in time so they can full understand the extent of hurt their peers may be feeling. Furthermore, students themselves may feel confused, angry, happy or any other range of emotions which will differ from each individual. It is important that despite differences, students are able to work together and over-come these challenging feelings in order to grasp the historical past. By having social and personal capabilities, students are able to constructively and effectively process how they are feeling and have the ability to articulate their thoughts and opinions in a sensitive way.

2. literacy

2.1. Literacy defines students ability to interpret and use language confidently for learning and communication. Literacy involves students listening to, reading, viewing, speaking, writing, and creating oral, print, visual and digital text, and using and modifying language for different purposes in a range of contexts.

2.1.1. general capabilities - comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing. furthermore composing texts through speaking, writing and creating.

2.1.2. knowledge and skills students need to access, understand, analyse and evaluate information, make meaning, express thoughts, emotions, present ideas, interact with others and participate in activities. students are also able to compose spoken, visual and written texts, create sentence structure, understand spelling and extended vocabulary and finally be able create understanding from visual elements and create meaning from them in order to help shape their learning. Within history, students need to have the ability to evaluate events that they are learning about and additionally need to posses knowledge and a skill-set to aide them in understanding and analysing the many different and often confrontational events that have occurred over time. By having the general capabilities of literacy students can access their emotions and actively express their thoughts and opinions. Furthermore, by having these capabilities, students will have a deeper/stronger understanding of how to utilise literacy content given to them. This in turn will help them present ideas, be more mindful of their actions and interactions with others and actively evaluate and analyse different historical events, leading them to deeper-thinking and high-end pedagogy. overall by knowing these concepts, students will gain high confidence in their learning as they will be able to extend their evaluations and come to different understandings, which additionally can be effectively shared with other peers and give each individual the ability to extend their knowledge and learning.

3. Numeracy

3.1. Numeracy encompasses knowledge and skills in many ranges of real life situations therefore it is a key element in student learning. Numeracy involves students recognising and understanding the role of mathematics in the worlds and having the dispositions and capabilities to use mathematical knowledge and skills purposefully.

3.1.1. General capabilities - using measurement, estimating and calculating with whole numbers, recognising and using patterns and relationships, using fractions, decimals, percentages, ratios and rates, using spatial reasoning and interpretation statistical reasoning.

3.1.2. Students need to be able to understand and use numbers in context, estimate and calculate, recognise and use patterns, interpret/apply proportional reasoning, interpret maps and diagrams, interpret data and chance displays, be able to estimate and measure with metric units and lastly have the ability to operate and understand clocks, timetables and calendars. Although it could be thought that the use of numeracy within history might not be necessary, there are still elements of the underlining capabilities that students are able to utilise within the classroom to enhance their learning. By accessing students general capabilities from every bridge of learning teachers will be able to enhance their teachings which can lead to deeper understanding and thinking. Different aspects of numeracy which can be used within a history classroom can include - recognising patterns and relationships, interpreting maps and diagrams, interpret data and additionally be able to understand timelines and calendars. All of these aspects will be features that student will come across within their learning experience within a History classroom, and it is important that teacher are aware that their students may need to access these general capabilities in order to engage within the content effectively. Every Historical event has encompassed one or more of capabilities, and furthermore, when teaching it, every historical moment in time will need to follow a time line as none were just random blips in time. students need to be competent with their general numeracy capabilities in order to link their education to high end pedagogy.

4. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

4.1. Information and communication Technology or ICT capability is becoming more and more crucial within the classroom as technology evolves. ICT allows students access, communication, information, ideas the ability to problem solve, create and collaboratively work with others. ICT capabilities furthermore allows students to continue to enhance and utilise the digital technologies that are available to them, and additionally give them the opportunity to learn and grow with new technologies, while limiting risks they might come across.

4.1.1. The key ideas with ICT capabilities lie within applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT, and managing and operating ICT. In essence, investigating, communicating and creating are most common and frequently points when linking ICT to any subject. ICT can be linked with any learning experience, which is not limited to only students either. As technology and digital spaces are ever growing, teachers need to have the ability to learn and grow with their students in order to create and effective classroom environment.

4.1.2. General capabilities - Recognising intellectual property, applying digital information security practices, applying personal security practices, identifying the impacts of ICT in society, define and plan information searches, locate, generate and access data and information, generate ideas and plans, generate solutions and challenges, collaborate, share and exchange, and finally managing digital data. When teaching any subject, ICT plays a strong role in the classroom within the twenty-first century. By giving student the opportunity to use digital spaces within their learning, students will not only be able to access new and interesting content which a teacher may not be able to provide, but they will also be able to further their learning, find different resources, communicate and collaborate with other peers and actively share their work with anyone and everyone. History can rely heavily on ICT and digital spaces, as it provides the chance to access information within the classroom that might not be found within a set text book and from teacher knowledge. By giving students access to digital spaces, they are able to explore and enhance their learning by discovering questions and seeking out answers as a class and on their own. Not only will teacher be able to search and answer question they may be face with immediately, they can also provide more interesting tasks from researching specific details about events, to even creating their own timelines of past historical events. By having a digital classroom, students and teachers are effectively able to communicate, collaborate and share ideas, assessments and questions with each other in and outside of school which can lead to deeper leaning and understanding. This in turn can create thought pathways for students and engage them in new research and content which may have been over looked if they had only been provided with a set text book.

5. Critical and Creative thinking

5.1. In the Australian curriculum critical and creative thinking is necessary in order for students to learn how to generate and evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solves problems. This capability involves students thinking deeply and using skills such as reason, logic, resourcefulness, imagination and innovation in all learning areas.

5.1.1. General capabilities - Posing questions, identifying and clarifying information, organising and processing information, imagining possibilities and connecting ideas, considering alternatives, seeking solutions and putting ideas into action, reflecting on processes,transferring knowledge into new contexts, applying logic and reasoning, drawing conclusions, designing a course of action and evaluating procedures and outcomes.

5.1.2. Thinking that is productive, purposeful and intentional is at the centre of effective learning. by engaging students in this type of learning it enhances their ability to problem solves and overcome challenges when faced with new ideas and information. These skills also provide students with more motivation and confidence within themselves and their work as they hold the ability to surpass obstacles on their own, which might have once stopped them from learning. The key ideas of critical and creative thinking are sectioned into four areas. Reflecting on thinking and processes, inquiring-identifying exploring and organising information and ideas, generating ideas, possibilities and actions and analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures. Critical and creative thinking is an important aspect within a history classroom as it allows students to branch into deeper understanding of why certain things happened, and furthermore, give students the chance to analyse different occurrences through different perspectives. By giving students the skills of not only seeking out new meanings and think creatively, critical and creative thinking also given students the chance to evaluate different historical events and artefacts, and draw upon their own ideas and conclusions behind them. learning history is an important part of education as it shows students what has happened in the past, allows them to understand why certain things are done today and furthermore gives them an insight as to how our society was formed today. As there were many detrimental results from the past, for students to completely understand the complexities of some situations they need to have the ability to seek out critical and creative thinking. Historical artefacts such as propaganda, laws and speeches all require creative and critical capabilities in order to gain the best possible insight and understand as to what they were supposed to mean. It is important for students to understand and realise how influential certain things could be even when the student themselves can see it as bad. For example, if a student today was handed a piece of propaganda from Nazi Germany on Jewish people, they would know how awful it was. However by having creative and critical capabilities, students would have the skill-set which allows them to look into the propaganda and understand different pathways as to how it could of been seen as effective, reflect on what it caused and how it could have been seen by the German people back in the 1940's.

6. Ethical Understanding

6.1. Ethical understanding is developed by students as they identify and understand ethical concepts, values, character traits and understand how reasoning can assist ethical judgement. this understanding involves students building a strong personal and socially orientated ethical outlook the helps them to manage context, conflict, uncertainty and to develop an awareness of the influence that their values had behaviour have on others.

6.1.1. General capabilities - Recognising ethical concepts, exploring ethical concepts in context, reasoning to making ethical decisions, the ability to consider consequences, the ability to reflect on ethical action, examine values, explore rights and responsibilities, and consider other points of view.

6.1.2. As the world is ever changing through social, cultural, environmental and technological aspects, students are now exposed to things they once were not and now their is a bigger need for teachers to enhance students ethical understanding so they are able to process what is happening. By building students ethical capabilities throughout their schooling, students will be better equip to face the complex issues that they may face in the future and have the skills necessary to understand the changing values, rights, interests and norms. Key ideas with ethical understanding are, exploring values, rights and responsibilities, understanding ethical concepts and issues and reasoning in decision-making and actions. Ethical understanding is a strong component within a History classroom as students need to understand the complexities of past historical events and why people and cultures acted certain ways. Students need to have the ability to process the different cultural norms and how something that might seem strange, awful, good or simply foreign to them, is something some of their peers and family might see as culturally acceptable. As society is constantly changing today, students need to be able to understand the past was dealing with the same concepts. Ethical understand ties in with personal and social capability as students need to be aware of themselves and their peers in a respectful and understanding way. Within a History classroom there will always be content that may shock, upset or offend someone and so students need to hold the capability to be respectful and be open to the ideal of learning different ways people might think, believe in and live. Through ethical understanding students will be able to think about the consequences of their words and actions and furthermore hold the ability to explore others opinions, rights, ethical beliefs and responsibilities. Students will be able to listen to others points of view, which in turn will allow them to better understand history, why certain things occurred and how other societies and cultures though what they were doing was right.

7. Intercultural Understanding

7.1. In the Australian Curriculum students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures, languages and beliefs, and those of others. Students come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped, and the variable and changing nature of culture. Through this understanding students are involved with learning about and engaging with diverse cultures in ways that recognise commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.

7.1.1. students need to understand the intercultural understand is an essential part of living with other in the world we live in today. It combines personal, interpersonal and social knowledge and skills and additionally involves students learning to value and view critically their own cultural perspectives and practices and those of others through their interactions with people, texts and contexts throughout all their learning. It helps stimulate students common interests with others and helps cultivate values and dispositions such as curiosity, care, empathy, respect, responsibility, open-mindedness, critical awareness and supports new and positive intercultural behaviours. The three key points on intercultural understand are, recognising culture and developing respect, interacting and empathising with others and reflecting on intercultural expierences and taking responsibility.

7.1.2. General capabilities - Investigating culture and cultural identity, exploring and comparing cultural knowledge beliefs and practices, developing respect for cultural diversity, communicating across cultures, considering and developing multiple perspectives, empathising with others, reflecting on intercultural experiences, challenging stereotypes and prejudices and mediating cultural differences. Intercultural understanding needs to be help at high value within a history classroom as it help students understand different historical events through a different cultures perspectives. Although culture is ever changing, students need to understand that in the past culture was different to what it is now and in many cases some of these qualities have been carried forward into the generations of today. By highlighting the importance of intercultural understanding, students will not only be better equip to function within the classroom to form understandings of past events, but also better function outside of the classroom with their peers and within society. As history is derived from many different cultures and societies, it is critical for students to be able to understand why some cultures believed in certain things, behaved certain ways and did certain things. Overall, even if students are not able to entirely understand as to why they did these things, they need to have the concept that other cultures are different and have an open mind as to why they might do these things. through these skills students are able to bridge their learning to better understand why some things may have happened and allow themselves to possibly even better understand some cultures today. Through learning these capabilities, students will also be able to have a more diverse understanding of cultures today and have a better understanding of how some traditions and ways of living may have been formed. They will have the ability to see commonalities between their cultures and furthermore be more respectful of others way of living.

8. All information sourced from: Australian Curriculum 2019, Assessment and Reporting Authority, Retrieved from: General capabilities

8.1. General Capabilities encompass Knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions. The help develop student confidence in applying knowledge and skills effectively and appropriately in complex and constantly changing circumstances in both school context and beyond the school.

8.1.1. In the Australian curriculum, History helps students learn about perspectives, beliefs and values of people, past and present. Furthermore, History helps define and shape the importance students own histories. Students learn about events and developments that have influenced societies over the years and how they have created the society we live in today.