How to describe learning and teaching

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How to describe learning and teaching by Mind Map: How to describe learning and teaching

1. How do the three elements of ESA fit together in lesson sequences?

1.1. One type of theaching sequence takes students in straight line: first the teacher gets the class interested an engaged, then they study something and they then try to activate it by putting it into production.

1.1.1. 1.- Engage: students and teacher look at a picture or video of modern robots. They say what the robots are doing. They say why they like or don't. like robots.

1.1.2. 2.- Study: the teacher show students (the picture of) a particular robort. Students are introduced to "can" and " can't." (how they are pronunced and contructed) and say things like. The teachers tries to make sure the sentences are pronunced correctly and that the students use accurate grammar.

1.1.3. 3.-Activate: students work in groups and desingn their own robot. They make a presentation to the class saying what their robot can and can't. do.

2. All children who repeatedly exposed to a language will in normal circumstances learn it. They do this uniconsciously- rather than as a form of study.

2.1. Most adults can learn a language without studying it, providing they are in the right kind of contact with it.

3. Children and adults who do acquire language successfully outside the classroom seem to share certain similarities in their learning experiences

4. So that

5. What elements are necessary for successful language learning in classrooms?

5.1. Classroom students don't usually get the same kind of exponsure or encouragment as those whos-at whatever age-are "pincking up" the language.

5.1.1. Its necessary that:

5.1.1.1. The like language learners outside school, they will need to be motivated, be exposed to language, and given chances to use it.

6. What teaching models have influenced current teaching practice?

6.1. Grammar-translation: this was probably the most commonly used way of learning language for hundreds of years-and it is stillpractised in many situations. Practitioners think that, by analysing the grammar and by finding equivalents between the students language and the language to be studied, the students will learn how the foreing language is constructed.

6.1.1. Audio-lingualism: this is the name given to a language-teaching methodology based heavily on behaviourist theories of learning. These theories suggested that much learning is the result of habit formation throungh conditioning. As a result of this, audio-lingual classes concentrated on long repetition-drill stages, in which the teacher hoped that the students would acquire good language habits. By rewarding correct production during these repetition phases, students could be conditioned into learning the language.

6.1.1.1. PPP: Similar to the straight arrows explained above (Presentation, Practice and Production).

6.1.1.1.1. Task-Based Learning: Here the student might realize some activities who let to complete task in order to learn in another way.

6.2. There have been five teaching models which have had a strong influence on classroom practice- and which teachers and trainers still refer to.