CLIMATE OF HOPE (Feel free to add notes & comments)

CLIMATE OF HOPE by Carl Pope and Michael BloombergAs studied in Adler.edu SCOM-514 Graduate course in Strategic Sustainability - Professor Flint - Summer, 2019 (Please feel free to contribute comments and data to the map if you have read the book.)

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CLIMATE OF HOPE (Feel free to add notes & comments) by Mind Map: CLIMATE OF HOPE (Feel free to add notes & comments)

1. PART I: COMING TO CLIMATE

1.1. 1) GOING AFTER GOLIATH (Pope)

1.1.1. Beyond Coal

1.1.1.1. Interactive Coal Map: USA

1.1.2. We need a new business model - coal's heyday was over - NEW BUSINESS PLAN

1.1.3. In preparing for battle I have always found that plans are useless, but planning is indispensable. —DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER

1.1.3.1. Let's discuss this idea. What's the difference between a plan in theory and a plan in practice. Consider all the plans for D-Day.

1.2. 2) PlaNYC (Bloomberg)

1.2.1. 127 Initiatives

1.2.2. "Cities are the key to actually saving the planet"

1.2.3. Mayors are more pragmatic and less ideological - see UrbSus as a path to faster economic growth.

1.2.4. Land use plan not enough - must be part of overall strategic plan

1.2.5. Nations argue, cities develop.

2. PART II: WHAT IT IS AND WHY IT MATTERS

2.1. 3) The Science (Pope)

2.1.1. Percentages for CO2 add up to 96% - so numbers are solid

2.1.2. Black Carbon, Halocarbons

2.1.3. Weather uncertainty

2.1.4. One Battle, Many Fronts

2.1.5. Sources? Apparently the 2010 EPA data

2.2. 4) The Stakes (Bloomberg)

2.2.1. Long term perspectives - do they help?

2.2.2. WHO - 7 million die annually from air pollution

2.2.3. Rising seas

2.2.3.1. rising incrementally, yet exponentially

2.2.3.2. 100 year floodplain

2.2.4. Severe heat

2.2.4.1. Milankovitch cycles

2.2.4.2. Heat wave deaths

2.2.5. Political Instability

2.2.5.1. Syria

2.2.5.2. Wheat

2.2.6. Ocean Life

2.2.6.1. Acidity

3. PART III: COAL TO CLEAN ENERGY

3.1. 5) Coal's Toll (Bloomberg)

3.1.1. Joining the fight

3.1.1.1. Sierra club

3.1.1.2. Old standing contracts

3.1.1.3. Chicago

3.1.2. The Market's War on Coal

3.1.2.1. New Gas

3.1.2.2. New Technologies

3.1.2.3. Proper Regulation

3.1.2.4. Consumer Demand

3.1.2.5. Subsidizing the Past

3.1.2.6. Coal in the World

3.1.3. Coal mining accidents: 1,000+ deaths/year in US in 1940s, average of 20 deaths/day in China from 1996-2000​

3.1.4. Coal pollution: caused 132,000 premature deaths, 20,000 heart attacks & 217,000 asthma attacked in US in 2011​

3.1.5. Biggest single greenhouse pollutant in US (almost ¼ of green house gas emissions)​

3.1.6. 13,200 annually, 36 Americans dead per DAY, 20,000 Europeans, 100,000 Indians per year.

3.1.7. Reasons For Decline​

3.1.7.1. Boom in natural gas production (due to fracking)​

3.1.7.2. Advances in technology have made solar and wind energy cost-competitive​

3.1.7.3. Improvements in pollution-reduction regulations, e.g. 2015 Clean Power Plan ​

3.1.7.4. Shifts in consumer preferences: Beyond Coal campaign has led to closure of more than 240 coal plants (1/3 of all US plants)​

3.1.7.5. India, China and others increasingly shifting to renewable energy for similar reasons; only 20 countries account for 90% of coal power​

3.2. 6) Green Power

3.2.1. India & Lighting a Billion Lives

3.2.1.1. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Model

3.2.1.2. Globally, 1.2 billion people live without electricity (400 million in India alone)​

3.2.1.3. Corruption

3.2.2. Solar Battle on the Rooftops

3.2.2.1. Nevada Power

3.2.2.2. Solar panels are affordable way to address rural electrification, but households need credit to assist with initial costs​

3.2.3. But the Sun Doesen't Shine at Night

3.2.3.1. USA = D+ rating in infrastructure - Opportunity?

3.2.4. A New Utility Bargain

3.2.4.1. Investment in high-voltage direct current transmision (HVDC) lines would allow surplus energy to support other areas in US, and would reduce overall cost​

3.2.4.2. Need business innovation (and regulatory support) in addition to technological progress to allow rooftop solar to expand​

3.2.4.3. New Model Emerging

3.2.4.3.1. Demand for electricity from big power stations drops as efficiency and local generation rise

3.2.4.3.2. Big nuclear and coal stations more expensive, renewables cheaper. Bigger = harder to site.

3.2.4.3.3. Customers are becoming empowered.

4. PART IV: GREEN LIVING

4.1. 7) Where We Live

4.1.1. Better Buildings

4.1.1.1. Challenge Partners

4.1.1.2. White Roofs

4.1.1.3. Clean Heat

4.1.1.4. Building Codes

4.1.2. Building Momentum

4.1.3. Buildings consume over 50% of world's electricity​

4.1.4. Ways to make buildings more energy efficient:​

4.1.5. White roofs to reduce heat absorption​

4.1.6. Clean heat: NY banned fuel oil #6 in 2015​

4.1.7. Building codes: solar roof panels don't count toward height limits; energy audits; sub-metering; Greener, Greater Buildings Plan​

4.1.8. Remove financial barriers to sustainable building​

4.1.9. Best way to increase conservation: make it financially rewarding​

4.2. 8) How We Eat

4.2.1. The Future of Food

4.2.1.1. Modern agriculture produces 30% of total methane (through livestock & rice paddies) and is a major source of CO2​

4.2.1.2. Biomass cooking produces black carbon, contributing to climate problem and is the 4th largest risk factor for disease in developing world​

4.2.1.3. Future of Food​

4.2.1.4. Reduce food waste by streamlining food supply chains, reducing containers/portion sizes, standardizing expiration labels, and composting​

4.2.2. How We Grow

4.2.2.1. Change agricultural practices to reduce use of nitrogen fertilizer, avoid bare soil and deep plowing (regenerative agriculture)​

4.2.2.2. Plants are crucial for storing CO2 and restoring climatic stability​

5. PART V: TRAVEL DIRECTIONS

5.1. 9) Cities Take The Wheel

5.1.1. Economy, Health, Safety

5.1.2. Street Dreams

5.1.3. Sharing the Road

5.1.4. Hop on the Bus and Tram

5.1.5. The Driverless Seat

5.2. 10) Oil's Twilight

5.2.1. High Performance Vehicles

5.2.2. Europe's Diesel Romance Gone Sour

5.2.3. Freight: The Little Engine that Could

5.2.4. Taking Flight

5.2.5. Reinventing the Car

5.2.6. Toward a New Mobility Revolution

5.2.7. Over a Barrel

6. PART VI: COOL CAPITALISM

6.1. 11) What We Make

6.1.1. Gas Leaks

6.1.2. The Timber Racket

6.1.3. Waste Not

6.1.4. RIP: HFCS

6.2. 12) How We Invest

6.2.1. Accounting for Climate

6.2.2. Investment Obstacles

6.2.3. Dollars and Sense

6.2.3.1. Taxes and Fees

6.2.3.2. Value Capture

6.2.3.3. Credit where Its Due

7. PART VIII: ADAPTING TO CHANGE

7.1. 13) A Resilient World

7.1.1. Can We Heal The Climate?

7.1.2. The Key Steps to Climate Restoration

7.1.3. The River's Going to Do What the River's Going to Do

7.1.4. The Resilience Dilemma

7.1.4.1. Resilience theory is good - but practically must reply upon and rest on natural sustainability factors. -DF

7.1.5. Feeding the World

7.1.6. A Global Embrapa?

7.2. 14) New Normals

7.2.1. Remembering Canute

7.2.2. Natural Allies

7.2.3. Mapping Out Solutions

7.2.4. Rain

7.2.5. Heat

7.2.6. Disease

7.2.7. Drought

8. CONCLUSION

8.1. 15) The Way Forward

8.1.1. “The best time to plant a tree was twenty years ago. The second best time in today.”

8.1.2. Reform Subsidies

8.1.3. Increase Transparency

8.1.4. Force Monopolies to Compete

8.1.5. Invest in Natural Resources

8.1.6. Realign Incentives

8.1.7. Improve Liquidity

8.1.8. Crack Down on Rent Seeking

8.1.9. Fixing Political Failures

8.1.10. The Metropolitan Solution

8.1.11. Opportunity for All

9. PREFACE (Michael Bloomberg and Carl Pope)

9.1. It's time for a new type of conversation!

9.2. "Each part fo the problem of climate change has a solution that can make our society healthier and stronger."

9.3. Fear mongering and abstract thinking does not motivate.

9.4. Michael Bloomberg

9.5. Carl Pope

10. OVERVIEW

10.1. Climate of Hope: How Cities, Businesses and Citizens Can Save the Planet (2017) is a collaboration between businessman, philanthropist, and former New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg and longtime environmentalist and former Sierra Club executive director Carl Pope.

10.1.1. Michael Bloomberg

10.1.1.1. Michael Bloomberg is a philanthropist who focuses on environmental issues through his foundation Bloomberg Philanthropies. He previously founded a successful media and financial services company. He was New York City's mayor from 2002 until 2013.

10.1.1.2. Bloomberg was a lifelong Democrat before he switched parties to run for mayor of New York City as a Republican. He later declared himself an Independent and has not run for political office despite rumors about a possible run for governor and even presidential aspirations. He writes that mayors of cities are more directly involved in people's well being than state and federal politicians, and that they have more incentives to curb climate change immediately. He believes cities and their mayors can offer a bottom-up solution because they can effect change quickly and show evidence of the economic benefits of policy changes.

10.1.2. Carl Pope

10.1.2.1. Carl Pope is the principal adviser at Inside Straight Strategies and is a senior climate adviser to Michael Bloomberg. Previously he was the executive director and chairman of the Sierra Club. His other published books include Sahib: An American Misadventure in India (1972), Hazardous Waste in America (1982), and Strategic Ignorance: Why the Bush Administration Is Recklessly Destroying a Century of Environmental Progress (2004).

10.1.2.2. Carl Pope is a longtime on-the-ground environmentalist who earned his bona fides through the Peace Corps and his time leading the Sierra Club. Michael Bloomberg is a data-driven activist who wants to analyze numbers and statistics. Climate of Hope was written, the authors say, in the interest of improving public health, stopping global warming, and increasing economic growth.

10.2. KEY INSIGHTS

10.2.1. 1. Climate predictability allowed people to settle and build large cities, but warming temperatures are disrupting long-term weather patterns.

10.2.2. 2. Climate change is caused by many interrelated factors. Burning fossil fuels for energy is the most apparent, but other concerns include coal mining, manufacturing, agriculture, oil and gas extraction, and air conditioning.

10.2.3. 3. Climate scientists can’t know the exact amount of greenhouse gases that will be emitted gomg forward, so all projections are uncertain.

10.2.4. 4. Renewable energy is less expensive but requires up-front financing, an updated energy grid, and fair business models to compete with established energy sources.

10.2.5. 5. Solar panels, prohibitively expensive a decade ago, now are accessible to far more consumers.

10.2.6. 6. Millions of people in India rely on kerosene for light. Solar panels, which are clean and have an approximate 20-year lifespan, could replace kerosene if households were loaned the up-front cost of buying them.

10.2.7. 7. Some wind and solar energy is wasted because the existing grid in the United States is unable to absorb it.

10.2.8. 8. New buildings need to be designed and constructed to standards of high efficiency, and older buildings need retrofitting.

10.2.9. 9. People m developing nations cook food over burning charcoal or wood. Subsidized access to modern appliances and cooking fuels would help to clean the air.

10.2.10. 10. Landfills release large amounts of methane mto the atmosphere. Landfills should be used only for inorganic materials while everything else is recycled or composted.

10.2.11. 11. Regenerative agriculture, which uses cover crops, crop rotation, and composting, turns croplands from carbon emitters mto carbon sinks, uses less water, costs less, and produces good yields.

10.2.12. 12. Diesel can be more efficient in large trucks and buses, and can be fairly clean through the use of diesel particulate traps and lower-sulfur fuels. However, so far no diesel-powered passenger cars are able to meet air quality controls.

10.2.13. 13. Ships and trams are the most efficient and least polluting ways to move goods. Better infrastructure is required to connect nations by rail.

10.2.14. 14. The airline industry should let go of its old-fashioned hub-and-spoke model of routes and instead operate direct flights, which are more efficient because the greatest amounts of fuel are burned on takeoff and landing.

10.2.15. 15. Historically, passenger cars have been gasoline-powered, driver-operated, and privately owned. That model is now challenged by electric vehicles, self-driving autos, and car sharing, all of which are better for the environment and economy.