Hinduism

Religion Hinduism Mind Map 2019

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Hinduism by Mind Map: Hinduism

1. Facts

1.1. Over 900 million Hindus in the world

1.2. 1.166 billion people in India - 80% are Hindu

1.3. It is the third largest religion in the world

2. History

2.1. Pre-Vedic Period

2.1.1. 3rd/2nd millennium before birth of Christ (2500 to 1500 BCE → ancient civilization thrived in area of Indus River Historians have many questions about the Indus Valley Civilization (their language has not been deciphered) but scholars do know...

2.2. Vedic Period

2.2.1. Named for the first sacred writings of Hinduism, the Vedas, because scholars believe they were collected in this period.

2.2.2. Vedas: early sacred scripture of Hinduism The language of the Vedas is Sanskrit and “Veda” is the Sanskrit word for knowledge.

2.2.3. Sanskrit: the language of ancient India

2.2.4. Rituals during this period focused on prayers, elements of nature, and animal sacrifices

2.3. Upanishadic Period

2.3.1. Ancient India’s culture was unified

2.3.2. Hinduism accepted the Vedas & added to them with Upanishads

2.3.3. The Upanishads are interpretations of the Vedas added to the end of each. With these additions, Hinduism as we know it emerged.

2.3.3.1. Moved Hinduism from focus on sacrificial practices to a philosophical and meditative way of life - a focus more on the inner self

2.3.3.2. Upanishads: sacred scriptures; final dialogues ending the Vedas

2.4. 2500-1500 BCE: Pre-Vedic period; Indus Valley civilization 1500-600 BCE: Vedic period; Vedas are written 600-200 BCE: Upanishadic period; India’s culture is unified 500 BCE: Buddhism and Jainism become offshoots of Hinduism 400-100 BCE: Other key sacred texts are compiled; including the Bhagavad Gita and the Ramayana 200 CE: Hindu influences start to spread to what is now Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia 1775: The beginning of the first Muslim empire in India 1818: The beginning of British rule in India 1869-1948: The life of Mohandas Ghandi, political leader 1947: End of British rule. Creation of the modern states of India and Pakistan

3. Scripture

3.1. The Vedas

3.1.1. The oldest Hindu Scriptures are the Vedas (the Sanskrit word for “knowledge”)

3.1.2. Written by and for the Brahman caste.

3.1.3. The Vedas include verses for ritual, explanations of rituals and the Upanishads (the last Vedic text).

3.1.4. Revealed scripture. This means they were unauthorized and revealed by sages.

3.2. The Upanishads

3.2.1. Translated to “sit down near”

3.2.2. The Upanishads is like a conversation in which a person sits down next to a wise teacher to learn.

3.2.3. The Upanishads were shared orally for more than 1000 years before they were written down.

3.2.4. The Upanishads have the most influence in Hinduism today

3.3. The Epics

3.3.1. The Epics are Hindu myths that were told orally, and written down much later.

3.3.1.1. The Bhagavad Gita

3.3.1.1.1. Arjuna must take back his kingdom through battle and Lord Krishna is his charioteer. What continues, is a discussion between Arjuna and Krishna about life and the cycle of Samsara. Arjuna recognizes that engaging in battle will lead to the death of others and questions this. For Arjuna, the moral dilemma is to fight in a civil war against his friends, neighbours, family and teachers, or to not fulfill his duty. The battle represents the spiritual, mental and emotional battle we face. Arjuna, heads into battle convinced by Krishna. Many people say that the Hindu scriptures are summarized in the Bhagavad Gita

3.3.1.2. The Ramayana

3.3.1.2.1. The Ramayana is about a virtuous prince named Rama who lived during a time when the world was being terrorized by a demon named Ravana. Rama was exiled into the forest by his father. While in the forest, Ravana kidnaps Rama’s wife Sita.

3.4. The Hindu Trinity

3.4.1. Hindus believe that there is only one God (Brahman), but that God is manifested in many different forms. The deities of the Hindu trinity are the three most important manifestations of Brahman. All other Hindu deities are incarnations or avatars of Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu

3.4.1.1. Brahma: The Creator

3.4.1.1.1. Creator of the universe Four faces that look at the four directions to show that he is all knowing and all seeing. Usually dressed in white riding a swan or peacock, or seated on a lotus. He is considered above worship therefore there are very few temples dedicated to him.

3.4.1.2. Vishnu: The Preserver

3.4.1.2.1. Shown dressed in yellow with blue skin. Often pictured with his partner Lakshmi riding on the back of a half-bird, half-man creature. Vishnu descends to the world sometimes to help “preserve” order. Avatars are worldly incarnations of Vishnu. Vishnu’s avatars include Krishna, Rama, the Buddha.

3.4.1.3. Shiva: The Destroyer/Preserver

3.4.1.3.1. Shiva is both the destroyer and redeemer. He is the deity of the cosmic dance who is dangerous, destructive and lethal yet joyful and creative. He destroys sins. He is often shown wearing a snake skinned loin cloth and a necklace of skulls. Shiva’s cosmic dance represents both the destruction of the universe and the destruction of Samsara. Destruction is required for creation.

4. Lifecycle

4.1. Samsara

4.1.1. The continuous cycle of birth, death and rebirth. All life must return to the world after death. Many people may not end up being reborn (reincarnated) as animals.

4.2. Moksha

4.2.1. The ultimate goal to be free from samsara, and be one with God. The soul, on its own, is God. We are not separate from God, and to become free from samsara is determined by the law of karma. What is beyond Moksha is indescribable to humans. Ultimate bliss, knowledge and awareness, and to be one with the divine source.

4.3. Karma

4.3.1. All karma causes suffering in the world. Karma links us to the world, and therefore links us to suffering.

4.3.2. There is good and bad karma. Good karma will lead to a favourable rebirth, but even good karma will lead to rebirth.

4.3.3. Good karma follows when people follow their duties or their dharma. Ignoring their duties builds bad karma. Dharma is related to family duties and your duty in society.

4.4. Brahman

4.4.1. The Supreme Cosmic force, and the power that sustains the universe.

4.4.2. With the Upanishads, the belief that fire united us all, was replaced with the idea that the self that people experience with their consciousness is Brahman. Brahman cannot be named or explained, therefore the deities reflect different characteristics of Brahman.

4.5. Atman

4.5.1. The true self, that is a fragment of the divine Brahman. When we become conscious of this, then we can defeat death.

4.5.2. What keep humans from this consciousness is life’s distractions. This is called maya (when people see things as separate, and forget the oneness (Brahman) that surges through all things. To live in maya is to be imprisoned in ignorance and distraction.

5. Rituals

5.1. Asceticism

5.1.1. An ascetic is someone who practices severe self-discipline or abstains from physical pleasures for religious purposes