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1.1. Definition: branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.

1.1.1. Important: Understand evolutionary patterns Predicting characteristics of new discovered species Easy distinction Easy identification (Avoid uncertainty) Protection and conservation

1.2. Species: basic unit of taxon

1.3. Taxonomic hierarchy

1.3.1. Artificial classification Dichotomous Keys Enable organisms to be grouped into taxon (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species)

1.3.2. Natural classification Homologous character Two or more species have a similar basic structure rather than function Analogous character Similar function with different structure


2.1. Eukaryotic (not animal/plant/fungi)

2.2. Habitat: diverse (aquatic/damp)

2.3. Exist in unicellular, colonial and simple multicellular form

2.4. Include Heterotrophic (Amoeba & paramesium), Autrophic (Euglena), Parasites (Plasmodium)

2.5. Sub kingdom

2.5.1. Algae Body is photosynthetic thallus (vegetative body lacks of true leaves, stem and roots) Found in aquatic environment (ocean, sea, freshwater lakes) Cells are surrounded by cell wall and has one/more large vacuoles Plastids (chloroplast) posses photosynthesis Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae) Phaephyta (brown algae) Rhodophyta (red algae) Bacillariophyta (diatoms)

2.5.2. Protozoa Unicellular eukaryotic Has no tissue Heterotrophic Lack cell wall Phylum Rhizopoda (Amoeba) Ciliophora (Paramecium) Zoomastigina (Euglena) Apicomplexa (Plasmodium)


3.1. Multicellular eukaryotes

3.1.1. except yeast (unicellular)

3.2. Non-photosynthetic

3.2.1. lack of chlorophyll

3.3. Heterotrophic

3.3.1. parasites

3.3.2. saprotrophs

3.3.3. mutualist

3.4. Body

3.4.1. mycelium

3.4.2. a network of fine tubular filament (hyphae) rigid cell wall contain chitin

3.5. Non-motile

3.5.1. cilia and flagella are absent

3.6. Carbohydrate stored in glycogen

3.7. Reproduction

3.7.1. spores Asexual Sexual

3.8. Phylum

3.8.1. Zygomycota (Rhizopus, Mucor) aseptate/coenocytic (hyphae without cross walls) are not devided into individual cells are instead combined into an elongated, multinucleated giant cell nuclei are distributed at intervals throughout the cytoplasm: continuous mass organelles (exp: mitochondria) able to move freely within the hyphae concentrated in actively growing regions hyphea (have many storage granules) feed saprotrophically by means of branching hyphae/rhizoids sporangia (spore produced) found in damp soil/dung of herbivorous animal

3.8.2. Ascomycota (Penicillum, Saccharomyces (yeast) )

3.8.3. Basidiomycota (Agaricus(mushroom))


4.1. Multicellular eukaryotes

4.2. Autotrophic

4.3. Trap light energy

4.3.1. chlorophyll a & b, xantophyll, carotenoid green in colour

4.4. Call wall

4.4.1. cellulose

4.5. Food is stored in form of starch

4.6. Reproduction

4.6.1. sexually alternation of generation shifting back and forth between haploid and diploid stages during life cycle

4.7. Phylum

4.7.1. Bryophyta (mosses) habitat: damp, shady places body thallus differentiated into simple "leaves" and "stem" rhizoids anchored to substratum by filamentous outgrowing of stem whole surface can absorb water and mineral salts no vascular tissue (xylem or phloem) no seed exhibit alternative of generation gametophyte generation is dominant class Hepaticae (liverworts- Marchantia) Musci (Polytrichum) Anthocerotae (Anthoceros)

4.7.2. Filicinophyta (ferns) habitat: damp, shady Alternative generetion sporophyte generation is dominant described as heterosporous homosporous Exp: Dryopteris fronds (large leaves) pinnae (leaflets) rhizome (stem) ramenta (brownish scales cover stem and petiole) homosporous sori (sporangia are in clusters)

4.7.3. Coniferophyta (conifers) Exp: Pirus seeds are not protected by ovary vascular tissue alternative generation heterosporous sporangia (bear male and female cones)

4.7.4. Angiospermophyta (flowering plant) seeds are protected vascular tissue highly developed xylem phloem alternative generation sporophyte generation is dominant gametophyte generation is reduced heterospores (produce two spore) sexual reproduction by flowers classified monocotyledoneae dicotyledoneae


5.1. multicellular

5.2. eukaryotic

5.3. heterotrophic

5.4. show high level of tissue differentiation

5.4.1. similar cells, tissue, organ

5.5. have nervous coordination and muscle system

5.5.1. can respond quickly to environmental stimuli

5.5.2. move from one place to another

5.6. sexual reproduction

5.7. phylum

5.7.1. Porifera

5.7.2. Cnidaria

5.7.3. Platyhelminthes

5.7.4. Nematoda

5.7.5. Annelida

5.7.6. Arthropoda

5.7.7. Mollusca

5.7.8. Echinodermata

5.7.9. Chordata

5.8. body plan

5.8.1. symmetry

5.8.2. body tissue

5.8.3. body cavity acoelomate animal coelom (has no body cavity) pseudocoelomate animal pseudocoelom (body cavity not completely lined with tissues derived from mesoderm) coelomate animal true coelom (body cavity completely lined with tissue derived from mesoderm)

5.8.4. protostome and deuterostome development