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1. Translation

1.1. Initiation

1.1.1. Ribosomal subunits binds to mRNA and tRNA

1.1.2. Start codon signals the start of translation

1.1.3. mRNA + initiator tRNA and ribosomal unit = large ribosomal subunit

1.1.4. Initiator tRNA sits at P site of ribosome

1.1.5. A site for next aminoacyl tRNA

1.2. Elongation

1.2.1. mRNA moved through ribosome at 5' end first

1.2.2. Elongation cycle repeated until polypeptide is completed

1.2.3. tRNA release from E site to cytoplasm

1.3. Termination

1.3.1. When stop codon in mRNA reach A site of ribosome

1.3.2. UAG, UAA / UGA as signals to stop translation RNA polymerase binds to promoter (to determine the transcription start)

1.3.3. Transcription Initiation transcription factors + RNA polymerase II bound to promoter = transcription initiation complex Elongation RNA polymerase untwist the double helix of DNA New RNA molecule peels away from its DNA template DNA double helix re-forms Termination RNA polymerase transcribes DNA from N-terminus, AAUAAA sequences in pre-mRNA pre-mRNA undergo processing / modifying

1.3.4. tRNA binds directly to stop codon in A site

1.3.5. Hydrolyze bond of completed polypeptide and tRNA in P site