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Biological Molecules by Mind Map: Biological Molecules

1. Proteins

1.1. Made out of

1.1.1. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, [Sulfur (rare)]

1.2. Types

1.2.1. Amino acids

1.2.1.1. Folds up into a complex 3d shape, held by weak bonds

1.2.1.2. About 20 types of amino acids that make up proteins.

1.2.1.2.1. Therefore, nearly infinite amount of proteins can be made. (Estimated amount of 50,000 types of proteins in human body)

1.3. Functions

1.3.1. Depends on the shape of the protein.

1.3.1.1. It is because enzymes are proteins and bonds holding proteins are weak, they denature above certain temperatures and thus, bonds are broken and the structure of the protein changes.

1.3.2. Cell Membranes

1.3.2.1. Control the movement of substances during active transport

1.3.3. Enzymes

1.3.3.1. Photosynthesis

1.3.3.2. Respiration

1.3.3.3. DNA copying

1.3.3.4. Digestion

1.3.4. Hormones

1.3.4.1. Insulin

1.3.4.2. Estrogen

1.3.4.3. Testosterone

1.3.5. Antibodies

1.3.5.1. Fighting infection

2. Carbohydrates

2.1. Made out of

2.1.1. Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen

2.2. Types

2.2.1. Monosaccharides

2.2.1.1. 2 Sugars

2.2.2. Dissaccharides

2.2.2.1. 2 Sugars joined together

2.2.3. Polysaccharidies

2.2.3.1. Lots of sugars joined together

2.2.3.1.1. Examples

3. Lipids

3.1. Made out of

3.1.1. Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen

3.2. Types

3.2.1. Triglycerides

3.2.1.1. Single glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids attached

3.2.1.1.1. A form of dietary fat found in meats, dairy and cooking oils

3.2.1.2. Can be made by livers as well

3.3. Uses

3.3.1. Cells and tissue for energy

3.4. Can be stored as fat

4. 55-60% of water present

4.1. Muscles & Kidneys

4.1.1. 79% of water

4.2. Bones

4.2.1. 31% of water

5. Nucleic Acids