Thyroid Diseases

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Thyroid Diseases by Mind Map: Thyroid Diseases

1. Reduced number/sensitivity of B-Adrenergic receptors

2. Lower heart rate, decreased stroke volume, decreased diastolic volume, increased peripheral resistance

2.1. Associated with lower exercise and energy early in disease

3. Reduced catecholamine action, reduced metabolism

4. Hypothyroidism

5. Hyperthyroidism

6. Pathogenesis

6.1. Graves Disease

6.1.1. Typical in 30s/40s

6.1.2. Thyroid Symmetrically Enlarged

6.1.3. Thyroid doubles or triples in weight

6.2. Multinodular Goiter

6.3. Pituitary Adenoma

7. Pathogenesis

7.1. Congenital

7.1.1. Aplasia of Thyroid

7.1.2. Defect in hormone biosynthesis

7.1.3. 1/4000 births

7.1.4. Girls affected twice as often

7.1.5. 15% hereditary

7.1.6. Caused by mutations in transcription factors

7.2. Autoimmune disease

7.2.1. Hashimoto Thyroiditis

7.3. Diminished hormone synthesis

7.3.1. Iodine Deficiency

7.3.2. Drug effects

7.4. Deficient TSH/TRH secretion

8. Symptoms

8.1. Alertness, nervousness, irritability

8.2. Loss of concentration

8.3. Weakness in muscles, upper body

8.4. Heart palpitations

8.5. Increased appetite, weight loss

8.6. Heat intolerance

8.7. Rapid Speech

8.8. Tremors

9. Cardiovascular Alterations

9.1. Increased sensitivity/number of B-Adrenergic Receptors

9.2. Amplified Catecholamine action, increase in metabolism

9.3. Increased metabolic rate, weight loss

9.3.1. Common in elderly patients or those with already reduced appetite

9.4. Palpitations, tachycardia, arrhythmia

9.5. Increased heart rate

9.6. Reduced peripheral vascular resistance

9.7. Atrial fibrillation

9.7.1. Common in elderly patients

10. Gastrointestinal Alterations

10.1. Increased metabolism and weight loss

10.1.1. Common in elderly, reduced appetite

10.2. Increased Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

10.3. Increased Carbohydrate Absorption

10.3.1. Rapid changes in blood sugar after eating

10.4. Increased Insulin Degredation

10.4.1. Rapid changes in blood sugar after eating

10.5. Increased Insulin Secretion

10.5.1. Compensates for degradation, maintains normal function

10.5.2. Diabetic patients require additional insulin doses

10.6. Low cholesterol

10.6.1. Increase in number of LDL receptors

10.7. Increased frequency of bowel movements

10.7.1. Increased GI motility

11. Opposite Effects From Each Disease

12. Symptoms

12.1. Increased serum TSH, lower hormone uptake, lower radioiodine uptake

12.2. Lower metabolic rate

12.3. Reduction of thyroid size/weight

12.4. Slow thinking, lethargy

12.5. Dry skin

12.6. Lower appetite, weight gain, constipation

12.7. Slow speech

12.8. Swollen face

13. Cardiovascular Alterations

13.1. Bradycardia, cardiomyopathy

13.2. Thickening of intraventricular septum, decreased wall motion

13.2.1. Due to deposition of mucopolysaccharides, fiber degredation, cardiac enlargement

13.2.2. Common in elderly patients, late stage of disease

13.3. Heart failure

14. Gastrointestinal Alterations

14.1. Lower metabolic rate

14.1.1. Weight gain

14.1.2. Low appetite

14.2. High cholesterol

14.2.1. Reduced number of LDL receptors

14.3. Constipation

14.4. Achlorhydria associated with Pernicious Anemia

14.4.1. Reduced GI motility

14.4.2. Ascitic fluid with high protein buildup