Conceptual Map Composition II By David Salas

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Conceptual Map Composition II By David Salas by Mind Map: Conceptual Map    Composition II        By David Salas

1. Chapter # 3 Basic Paragraph Structure

1.1. 1.The Topic Sentence Is the most important sentence in a paragraph. It has 2 parts. A topic and a controlling idea. The topic names the subject of the paragraph. The controlling idea tells the main idea about the topic. It controls, or limits, the topic. Examples Some hobbies are relaxing. Topic controlling idea Position of the topic sentence Usually is the first or second sentence in a paragraph. A topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph gives the reader an idea of what they will be reading. Not too general, not too specific. A topic sentence is neither too general nor too specific. The number of hours that Americans work each week has changed in the past 30 years. Developing Topic Sentences You can develop them in various ways. If the topic is vast you can use “Listing ideas” to narrow the possibilities.

1.2. 2. Supporting Sentences. After you write the topic sentence, you must supply information to support it. Supporting Sentences present main points about the topic (reasons, advantages, categories or events in a narration) and supporting details (examples, facts, descriptions, definitions). First of all, relaxation reduces stress that can lead to serious health problems. The next benefit is creativity. Finally, interests outside of work can lead to a positive attitude.

1.3. 3.Supporing Details You can use examples to illustrate a topic or main point. Examples are effective because they are specific and easy for readers to see or visualize. They make your meaning clear and memorable. Example signals are used to introduce examples. For example, For example, Planting a community garden is a great way to meet people and relieve stress. For instance, For instance, when volunteers help children learn to read, they feel wonderful about what they have achieved.

1.4. 4.The Concluding Sentence The concluding sentence signals the end of a paragraph and reminds the reader of the controlling idea. How to conclude a sentence 1.Beging with a conclusion signal. In brief, To conclude, To summarize, Indeed, In short, (followed by comma) It is clear that… You can see that… (not followed by comma). 2.Use methods to remind your reader of the topic sentence. Repeat the controlling idea in the topic sentence Indeed, most people simply do not have enough money for certain pastimes. 3.Give your final thoughts, a suggestion or a prediction in your conclusion. In conclusion, becoming a collector offers a great deal of enjoyment. In conclusion, consider the cost before beginning a new hobby.

1.5. 5.Sentence Structure Good writers know how to build sentences by stating the subject-verb-object combinations. They add more information by including adjectives and adverbs. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb. Some verbs also have an object. Subjects, objects of verbs and objects of prepositions are often nouns, so they can be described by adjectives. Verbs can be described by adverbs Hard adventure usually presents physical challenges (for active people). adj. adverb adjective adjective Soft adventure travelers enjoy incredible experiences but live comfortably. adjective adjective adjective

2. Chapter #2 Narrative Paragraphs

2.1. In a Narrative Paragraph, writers present events in the order they happened. They use time order to organize the sentences in their narrative.

2.2. 1.Time – Order Signals They signal the order in which events happen. Put a comma after the time – order signal that comes before the subject at the beginning of a sentence. First, Later, Meanwhile, Next, Now, soon, Finally, The next day, At last, After a while.

2.3. 2.Sentence Structure Good writers use sentence structures. Some sentences may be short and contain only one subject – verb (S-V) combination. Others may be longer and contain two subject – verb combinations. Compound Sentences Compound sentences have two or more subject – verb combinations. Compound sentences is composed of at least two simple sentences joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction. Look at this pattern example. He heard happy singing, so he dropped the other two rice balls into the hole. Coordinating Conjunctions There are 7 coordinating conjunctions. and, but, so, or, for, nor and yet. (fanboys) The old man was a generous person, and he liked to help others. He took the small box, and he went home.

2.4. 3.Punctuation Three Comma Rules The comma is a helpful writing tool. 1.Put a comma after a time-order signal that comes before the subject at the beginning of a sentence. Then, soon and now are usually not followed by a comma. Yesterday, I did homework for three hours. Finally, I was too tired to think. At 8:00 in the evening, I fell asleep on the sofa. 2.Put a comma after the first sentence in a compound sentence. Put the comma before the coordinating conjunction. (Don’t use comma between two parts of a simple sentence). I was too tired to think, so I decided to take a short break. But I woke up and finished my homework. 3.Put a comma between the items in a series of three or more items. The items may be words, phrases or, clauses. (Don’t use a comma between only two items). I got up, took a shower, drank a coffee, grabbed my books, and ran out the door. Red, white, and blue are the colors of the United States flag.

2.5. 4.Preparation for writing There are many ways to prepare to write. Prewriting is the step in the writing process in which you get ideas. Freewriting When you free write, you write freely without stopping on a topic for a specific amount of time. The main goal is to keep your pencil moving across the paper. 1.Prewrite to get ideas. Reread your freewriting. Highlight the parts you like the most. Keep freewriting until you are finished. 2.Organize your ideas. Select and write down your topic. Decide the main purpose. Put the events in time order. Make a list of events. Use the list to guide you as you write. 3.Write the first draft. Write the first draft in paper. Include details of its purpose. Use time-order signals Use compound nouns Pay attention to sentence structure (compound sentence). Give it a tittle. 4.Revise and edit the draft. Check for errors and read it over to identify errors and to make sure it makes sense and it written clearly. 5.Write a new draft. Write a new copy with your final revisions and edits. Proofread it, fix any

3. Chapter #8 Comparison / Contrast Paragraphs

3.1. Antonyms Antonyms (opposite meaning) are an important tool when you are writing comparison/contrast paragraphs. similarities ≠ differences then ≠ now past ≠ current

3.2. Topic Sentences in Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs The topic sentence should name the topic ( the two subjects that you are comparing or contracting) and indicate the controlling idea (whether the focus of the paragraph is on similarities, differences, or both). To understand 21st century education, let’s examine the similarities and differences between the schools of 50 years ago and the schools of today. When students are applying to colleges, they should consider differences in class size, academic standards, and tuition. The Olympics of ancient Greece and the Olympics of today have three key differences.

3.3. Supporting Sentences in Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs There are two ways of organizing them: 1. Point-by-point organization. You write about similarities and/or differences one main point (subtopic) at a time. 2. Block organization. You group all of the similarities together in one block and all of the differences together in one block.

3.4. Concluding Sentences in Comparison/Contrast Paragraphs The conclusion may repeat the topic sentence or restate similarities and differences. It may also give an opinion or recommendation. In conclusion, after students weigh the differences in quality and cost, they may decide to choose a smaller, less expensive college that nevertheless has high academic standards. To sum up, the ancient Olympics and the modern Olympics differ in their purpose, participants, and events.

3.5. Transition Signal for Comparison Transition signals to express similarity Signals to Show Similarities Sentence Coordinating Conj. Paired Conj. Subordinating Conj. Others connectors similarity and… (too) both … and as similar likewise not only… just as equal but also also the same too similar to equal to (just) like the same as

3.6. Sentence Connectors Also often appears in the middle or at the end. Don’t use also with semicolon. British English reverses the order of subjects and verbs in questions. American English also changes word order for questions. Too usually comes at the end of a sentence. It often appears together with the coordinating conjunction and. British English uses do and did for negative statements in the simple present and the simple past; American English uses these auxiliary verbs, too. British English uses do and did for negative statements in the simple present and the simple past; American English uses these auxiliary verbs too.

3.7. Paired Conjunctions They are always used together. The word that comes after the second conjunction must be the same part of speech (noun, verb, adverb, and so on) as the word that comes after the first conjunction. This is called parallelism. The vocabulary of British and American English is both colorful and large. The vocabulary of British and American English is not only colorful but also large. With prefixes, native speakers can create new words that are both logical and functional. The same suffixes appear both in British English and in American English.

3.8. Subordinating Conjunctions As is a subordinating word. It begins a dependent clause. The word just makes it stronger. You use comma even when the independent clause comes first. American English requires subject-verb agreement, as/just as British English does.

3.9. Others Similar, equal and the same as act like adjectives; that is they describe nouns. British English and American English sentences have similar patterns. Similar to, equal to, (just) like, and the same as act like prepositions. They come in front of nouns, noun phrases and pronouns to make prepositional phrases. Like British English, American English has formal grammar rules for academic writing. Equally is an adverb. It describes an adjective. British English and American English are equally complex.

3.10. Transition Signals for Contrast Transition signals you can use to express differences. Signals to Show Differences Sentence connectors Coordinating Conj. Subordinating Conj. Others in contrast but while different(ly) from on the other hand, yet whereas unlike however although differ (from) (in) even though though

3.11. Sentence Connectors In contrast, on the other hand, and however can be use as synonyms. In Great Britain, the letter a in the words path, laugh, aunt, plant, and dance is pronounced like the /a/ sound in father. In the United States, in contrast/on the other hand/however, the letter a in the same words is pronounced like the /a/ sound you hear from cat.

3.12. Coordinating Conjunctions Use but when the ideas are exact opposites. College are pre-university level in Great Britain, but they are university level in the United States. Use yet when one idea is surprising or unexpected continuation of the other idea. All in all, students of English will notice the differences between the language use in Britain and the United States, yet they are still learning the same language.

3.13. Subordinating Conjunctions Use while and always when the ideas are exact opposites. While and whereas can begin either clause. Always use a comma even when the independent clause comes first. British students theorize, analyze, and socialize, whereas American students theorize, analyze, and socialize. Use although, even though, or though when one idea is surprising or unexpected continuation of the other idea. Americans sometimes have difficulties traveling or living in England although they speak English. Although they speak English, Americans sometimes have difficulties traveling or living in England.

3.14. Others From and unlike are both prepositions. Put a noun or noun phrase after them. The way Americans pronounce the word better is different from the way British people do. Unlike the British, Americans pronounce the t in better an butter as a /d/ sound. Differently is and adverb. It describes the verb say Americans say many words differently from the way the British do. Differ is a verb. American English and British English differ in pronunciation. American biscuits and British biscuits differ.

4. Chapter #1 Academic Paragraphs

4.1. 1.Objectives -Identify and use correct page formats for academic writing. -Use capitalization correctly. -Identify and write simple sentences. -Check for and correct errors in subject-verb agreement. -Check for and correct fragments.

4.2. 2- Word Families -Make sure the words we use have the right meaning and are in the correct form: Noun Verb decision decide director direct innovator innovate modification modify

4.3. 3- Paragraph Organization A paragraph focuses on and develops one topic. The first sentence states the specific point. The rest of the sentences support the controlling idea. The first sentence states the topic and the controlling idea about the topic.

4.4. 4- Formatting the Page. Page Format for Computer. A. The Paper: 8 1/2 inch by 11 inches. B. The Font: Standard font style (Times New Roman font, 12-point font size. C. The Heading: Full Name in the upper left corner. In the next line, type the course number. On the Third line, type the date in month-day-year with a comma after the day. D. The Title: Skip one line. type the title and center it. E. The paragraph: Skip one line, and type on the next line. Indent the first word by using TAB key. Type the paragraph without line breaks. Only enter line breaks at the end of the paragraphs. Margins: Leave a 1-inch margin on the left and right margins. F. Spacing: double-space your paragraph.

4.5. 5-Capitalization: Capitalize the first letter of: 1 First word in a sentence. 2 The pronoun "I". 3 Abbreviations and acronyms from the first letters of words. USA, IBM. 4 All proper nouns. Names of people and their titles, nationalities, languages, religions and ethnic groups. God, Allah, John Smith. Mr. Mrs.

4.6. 6- Sentence Structure -Simple Sentences is a sentence that has one subject-verb pair. It may have one subject or two (compound) -Sentence Combining. Conjunctions "and" & "or" are used to combine short sentences

4.7. 7-Phrases: A phrase is a group of words that do not have a subject plus verb combination. A common type of phrase is a prepositional phrase. This combination has a preposition (in, on, at, from, to, of, with, around) followed by a noun or a pronoun. One (of his talents) is storytelling. (After Start Wars), George Lucas became famous.

4.8. 8-Subject- Verb Agreement: Subjects and Verbs agree in number. I am a sports fan. 1. When a subject – verb combination begins with the word there + the verb be, the subject follows the be verb. 2. Prepositional phrases can come between a subject and its verb, but they are not the subject. 3. Some words are always singular. 4. A few words are always plural. 5. A few words can be either singular or plural.

4.9. 9-Fragments: In English, you must always have at least one subject- verb combination in each sentence. If you leave out either the subject or the verb, your sentence is incomplete – this is a fragment. Fragments are sentences errors. Commands such as Stop that and Listen carefully, the subject you is understood but not stated. Is a good idea to do volunteer work. (there is no subject) Students never too busy to help others. (there is no verb) Corrections It is a good idea to do volunteer work. Students are never too busy to help others.

4.10. 10- The Writing Process. The process of writing has four steps. In the first step, you come up with ideas. In the second step, you organize the ideas. In the third step, you write a first draft. In the final step, you polish your first draft by revising and editing it. 1. Pre-writing to get ideas. Choose a topic and collect ideas and supporting ideas to explain the topic. Listing (write a topic and make a list of words, phrases that come to mind). 2. Organize your ideas. Organize your ideas into a simple outline. a. Give the outline a tittle. b. Write a sentence that names the topic and a controlling idea about the topic. c. Write supporting information or main points below this sentence. 3. Write the first draft. 4. Revise and edit the first draft. 5. Write a new draft.

5. Chapter # 4 Logical Division of Ideas

5.1. Logical Division of Ideas Is a pattern of organization in which you divide a topic into main points and discusses each main point separately. You can use logical division of ideas to organize supporting sentences for many kinds of topics. Topics • Reasons for shopping online, for owning a cell phone, for learning English, for texting. • Kinds of business/ loans/ bosses/teaches/students/shoppers. • Types/styles of books/music/clothing/movies/advertisements. • Disadvantages of shopping online/of living in a college residence hall/of having a roommate. • Qualities/features of a good product/ boss/ company/ employer/ of a good teacher/student. When you use logical division to organize a paragraph, begin with the topic sentence that presents your division of ideas (your main points). • There are several reasons that a vegetarian lifestyle is beneficial. • There are three kinds of apps that smart phones should have. In the supporting sentence discuss each main point one after the other. Introduce each main pint with a signal word or phrase such as the first reason…, the second… the final advantage…, In addition, Furthermore, Also, Moreover, • One reason to be a vegetarian is that it can increase health. • Another characteristic of a good boss is fairness. • In addition, every smart phone need mapping software. Support each main point with a brief explanation, short description or convincing detail. • Because vegetables have plenty of vitamins and fiber, they play an important role in the prevention of disease. • For example, when there is a disagreement between two employees, a successful manager will listen to both sides. At the end of the paragraph with a logical division pattern, writes summarize the main points. • For all these three reasons, being a vegetarian is a wise decision. • To sum up, a good boss is fair, responsible, and inspiring.

5.2. 1. Unity in the Supporting Sentences of a Paragraph In English unity is an important element of a good academic paragraph. The supporting sentences work together to support the topic sentence. Each sentence is directly linked to the topic and controlling idea about the topic.

5.3. 2. Coherence in the Supporting Sentences of a Paragraph In English, a well-written academic paragraph must have coherence in addition to unity. A paragraph with coherence is logical. All of the sentences are easy to follow because they are in a logical order and are well connected. There are transition signals to help the reader along the way. The paragraph flows smoothly from beginning to end. A reader can follow the main point and supporting sentences easily because one sentence leads naturally to the next one. There are no sudden jumps. Another way to achieve coherence is to use nouns and pronouns consistently. Continue to use the same nouns and pronouns that you started with.

5.4. 3. Sentence Structure The capital letters and the periods that identify the sentences in a paragraph are important signals that allow the reader to stop and think for a moment before moving on. Run-Ons and Comma Splices A run-on happens when you join two simple sentences without a comma and without a connecting word. A comma splice error happens when you join two simple sentences with a comma alone. • Run-on: Men like to shop quickly women like to take their time. • Comma splice: Men like to shop quickly, women like to take their time. Correcting Run-Ons and Comma Splices 1.join the two sentences with a comma and coordinating conjunction such as and, but, or so. 2.Make two sentences. Separate the two sentences with a period. 3.Add a sentence connector to the second sentence, If you want to show the relationship between the two sentences. Men like to shop quickly, but women like to take their time. Men like t shop quickly, Women like to take their time. Men like to shop quickly, However, women like to take their time.

5.5. 4. Finding Run-Ons and Comma Splices • Check all sentences that have a comma in the middle. • Ask yourself: What is the first subject in the sentence? • What verb goes with it? • Is there another subject with its own verb? • If the answer is yes, look for a coordinating conjunction. If there is none, then this is a run-on sentence. • Read any sentence aloud. This helps recognize where a new sentence should begin. • Look for words like then, also and therefore in the middle of the sentence, These are “danger words” because they often occur in run-on sentences and comma splices.

6. Chapter # 5 Process Paragraphs

6.1. This type of paragraphs is known as process, or how-to paragraph. The purpose of a process paragraph is to show the best way to do am important task by braking it down into a series of steps and explaining each step. Phrasal verbs will help you in the write more naturally and sound like a native speaker. When verbs combine with a particle (a preposition or adverb), they have a meaning that is different from the verb itself. Verb + particle (preposition or adverb) combinations such as look after (someone), stick to (a plan) and run up (a bill) are examples of phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs Clear up, going on, jump at, keep up, speak up, turn off.

6.2. Process Paragraphs have three basic parts: A topic sentence, supporting sentences and concluding sentence. Structuring a process paragraph. Topic Sentences in Process Paragraphs: The topic sentence names the topic and tells the reader to look for a process or procedure. Use words such as: steps, procedure, process, directions, suggestions, and instructions. • It will be easy for you to make a good impression on your course instructors if you follow these fundamental steps. • Use this step-by-step process to increase your reading speed. • These simple instructions clearly show how to make the battery on a laptop computer last longer.

6.3. Supporting Sentences in Process Paragraphs The supporting sentences in a process paragraph are the steps and details about each step in the process. First, before you go to class, do assigned reading and any other homework. Good preparation will enable you to understand the professor’s lecture more easily, ask intelligent questions, and keep up with the class. If you want to read faster and with more fluency, the second step is to put your dictionary an a hard-to-reach place so that you will use it less often. Next, go to the control panel of the computer and look for the power saving instructions.

6.4. Concluding Sentences in Process Paragraphs The concluding sentences can explain the last step, or it can sum up the results of following the entire process. If you follow these steps in all your courses, you will be better prepared for your tests, and your teachers will be ready to give you the good grades that you deserve. You will soon find that you can not only read faster but also understand much more. Finally, turn the laptop off when you are not using it.

6.5. Using Time Order in Process Paragraphs You arrange the steps in process in order by time, and you use time-order signals to guide the reader from steps to step. Here is a list of time-order signals: First, (Second…) First, preheat the oven to 500 degrees Fahrenheit. Then (no comma) Then prepare the pizza sauce. The first step… The next step is to mix the pizza dough. The next step… After five minutes, check the pizza. The final step… After you take the pizza out of the over, cut it into eight pieces.

6.6. Purpose The purpose of a process paragraph is to inform – to tell readers how to complete a specific process. The concluding sentence can emphasize the purpose of a process paragraph by stating the positive effect of following the steps in a process.

6.7. Clauses A clause is a group of words that contains at least one subject and one verb. • The student arrived late. • …because she wasn’t feeling well. There are two kind of clauses: independent and dependent. Independent clauses: can be a sentence by itself, or two independent clauses can be joined with the conjunctions and, bur, or, so for, yet and now. Example of simple sentence that is also an independent clause. • The professor provided his email address. Example of compound sentence with two independent clauses. The professor provided his email address, but some students did not write it down. Dependent Clause: It cannot be a sentence by itself. It depends on something to complete its meaning. …so that students could send him their compositions. … because they were not paying attention.

6.8. Complex Sentences A complex sentence is a combination of one independent clause and one (or more) dependent clauses. They can be in any order. The punctuation is different depending on the order. When the dependent adverb clause comes first, separate the clauses with a coma, When the independent clause comes first, do not separate them. • The students have a problem because they did not write down their professor’s email address. • Because they did not write down their professor’s email address, the students had a problem.

6.9. Subordinators A dependent adverb clause always begins with a subordinating conjunction or subordinator. There are different kinds of subordinator. They begin a clause that tells when something happens. Time Subordinators • After, as, as soon as, before, since, until, when, whenever, while. Reason subordinators • Because, since Purpose subordinators • So that Condition Subordinators • If, unless

7. Chapter # 6 Definition Paragraphs.

7.1. How to organize a Definition Paragraph. On way to write a topic sentence for a definition paragraph is to give three pieces of information: 1. The word or thing you will define or explain (the topic). 2. The large category or group to which the word or thing belongs. 3. The distinguishing characteristics that make the word or thing different from other members of the category. Term Category Characteristics Courage is… the quality of being brave in dangerous or difficult situation. Casual Friday refers to… the custom… of office workers wearing casual clothes to work on Fridays. The supporting sentences of a definition paragraph present details that explain the topic more completely. They give additional facts telling you who, what, where, when, how, or why. They provide an explanation of a process. Casual Friday became popular in the United States and Canada in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. Offices have rules about what employees can and cannot wear, but there is some freedom of choice on Friday. In a concluding sentence you may tell why the topic is the word. In my book, Angela has a lot in common with the bravest people in the world. Casual Friday lets office employees relax while they continue working on the last day of the workweek. The Underground Railroad is an important part of the history of the United States.

7.2. Appositives Appositives are nouns or noun phrases that rename another noun or noun phrase. • They set up a special table on which they display seven foods with names beginning with the letter s in Persian, the language of Iran. Persian and the language of Iran are the same thing. The language of Iran is an appositive. Appositives are helpful because they give the reader more information about the topic concisely. • Fudge, a soft creamy candy, was invented as a result of a cooking mistake. Appositives can contain necessary or extra information. • My friend Tina makes incredible chocolate fudge. • Tina, my friend, makes incredible chocolate fudge. Comma Rules for Appositives Use commas to separate an extra information appositive from the rest of the sentence. Do not use commas with necessary appositives. • Necessary: Magazine editor Sarah Josepha Hale helped make Thanksgiving. • Extra: Sarah Josepha Hale, a magazine editor, helped make Thanksgiving a national holiday in the United States.

7.3. Adjective Clauses Adjective clauses are dependent clauses. They begin with the word who, whom, which and that. These words are called relative pronouns, and adjective clauses are sometimes called relative clauses. Their purpose is to describe nouns and pronouns, they appear after the noun or pronoun that they modify. • Holiday is a word from the Old English that originally meant “holly day”. • Halloween, which is celebrated in the United States on October 31st, is a holiday with pagan origins. • Halloween is the day when children dress up in costumes and go from house to house to get candy. Like appositive, adjective clauses can give necessary extra information. Use the same comma rule.

7.4. Complex Sentences with Adjective Clauses Important points about adjective clauses. 1. Place an adjective clause after its antecedent and as close to it as possible. • Confusing: The valentine cards are based on a 19th=century British tradition that Americans buy for each other. • Clear: The Valentine cards that Americans buy for each other are based on a 19th-century British tradition. 2. When a relative pronoun is the subject of the adjective clause, make the verb in the clause agree with antecedent. • Antecedent: A store that sells chocolate will be busy on Valentine’s Day. • Antecedent: Stores that sell chocolate will be busy on Valentine’s Day. 3. Don’t use double pronouns. In Guatemala, Valentine’s Day in known as Dia del Carño, which it means Day of Affection. 4. When you make an adjective clause, choose an appropriate relative pronoun.

7.5. Subject Pronouns: Who, Which, and That. People Things Extra Information who which Necessary Inform. who which Object Pronouns: Who, Which, That and O (no pronoun) When the relative pronoun is an object in an adjective clause, choose yhe object pronoun whom, which or that, or use no pronoun. People Things Extra Information whom which Necessary Inform. whom which

7.6. Relative Adverbs: When and Where. You can begin an adjective clause with when or where to give more information about a time or place. When and where are relative adverbs that replace a prepositional phrase. When can also replace the word when, and where can replace the word there. When and where can begin clauses with both extra and necessary information. Extra information: when, where Necessary Information: when, where. Lexicographers are people who write dictionaries. Students cannot user their dictionaries on days when they have a test. I keep my large dictionary close to the place where I read and write.

7.7. Clustering Clustering is a way to come up with ideas in an organized way. You start by writing your topic in the middle of your paper. Think of related ideas and written them in smaller circles around the first circle. The related idea in each small circle may produce even more ideas and more circles. Once you ran out of ideas you may end up with a cluster.

8. Chapter # 7 Cause / Effect Paragraphs

8.1. Prefixes A prefix is a word part that is added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning. Prefix +Base Word = New Word co- (together; with) operation cooperation (work together) in- (not) expensive inexpensive (not expensive) miss- (wrong) step misstep ( wrong step)

8.2. Topic Sentences in Cause / Effect Paragraphs The topic sentence should state the topic and the controlling idea about the topic. The controlling idea should let the readers know whether the focus of the paragraph is on why something happened- the causes -or what happened as a result – the effects. Causes: There are three important causes for the success of Velib. Effects: Velib, the world’s most successful bike sharing system, has had three beneficial effects on cyclists since it was first introduced in Paris in 2007.

8.3. Supporting Sentences in Cause / Effect Paragraphs When you gather supporting information for a cause/effect paragraph, you first identify main causes or effects related to your topic. Then organize the causes or effects in the order in which they happened – that is, in time order. (logical order). After you put your causes/effects in order, arrange your supporting details in a logical way. The main causes and the supporting details are in logical order.

8.4. Concluding Sentences in Cause / Effect Paragraphs In the concluding sentences you may do one or more of the following: 1. Restate your controlling idea about the topic. In short, several key strategies cause Velib’s success. 2. Summarize the main causes or effects. All in all, Velib’s success is the result of thorough planning, powerful marketing, and a commitment to convenience and affordability. 3. Look to the future and/or make a prediction. In conclusion, Parisians hope that Velib will result in fewer cars and less pollution in the future, but for now they are enjoying the positive effects that the bike sharing program has already produced. 4. Give your opinion about the topic and make a recommendation. In my opinion, other large cities should follow the example of the Velib system so that their citizens can enjoy the same benefits that Parisians do.

8.5. Cause/Effect Transition Signals Transition signals you can use to express cause and effect. Signals to Show Causes Sentence connectors Coordinating Conj. Subordinating Conj. Others for because because of since due to as as a result of Signals to Show Effects Sentence connectors Coordinating Conj. Subordinating Conj. Others Therefore, so Thus, Consequently, As a result,

8.6. Sentence Connectors 1. Words and phrases that are sentence connectors link one sentence to the sentence that comes before it. I bring my lunch from home I a reusable container and eat with a fork that I can wash instead of a plastic one. Consequently, I add next to nothing to the trash cans at school. 2. Sentence Connectors usually come at the beginning of the second sentence, but they can also appear in the middle or at the end of a sentence. By reducing what I use, I have fewer items to recycle. As a result, sanitation trucks have fewer recyclables to transport. 3. Sentence connectors are usually followed by a comma. Factories have fewer recyclables to convert into new products. Thus, I am improving air quality.

8.7. Coordinating Conjunctions 1. They join two or more simple sentences (independent clauses) into one compound sentence. Simple sentence: I care about the environment. Simple sentence: I precycle as much as possible. Compound sentence: I care about the environment, so I precycle as much as possible. 2. Put a comma after the first simple sentence in a compound sentence (before the coordinating conjunction). It is better to use a cloth shopping bag, for the plastic bags that most stores give cannot be recycled.

8.8. Subordinating Conjunctions 1. They join an independent clause and a dependent clause in a complex sentence Ind. Clause: I bring my lunch from home in reusable bags and containers Dep. Clause because I can reuse the bag and container. 2. The dependent clause can come before or after an independent clause. Since items are usually transported to a recycling center by truck, recycling puts some pollution in the air. 3. Use comma when a dependent clause comes before an independent clause. Because recycling causes pollution, precycling is better for the environment. Precycling is better for the environment, because recycling causes pollution.