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Interfaces by Mind Map: Interfaces

1. Wearable computing, where Steve Mann (1997) donned head and eye cameras to enable him to record what he saw while also accessing digital information on the move, there have been many innovations and inventions.

1.1. New flexible display technologies, e-textiles, and physical programming (e.g. Arduino) provide opportunities for thinking about how to embed such technologies on people in the clothes they wear.

2. Command-based

2.1. Required the user to type abbreviated commands at the symbol that appeared on the screen, to which the system responded,

2.1.1. e.g. SHIFT+ATL+CTRL

3. WIMP & GUI

3.1. With its invention, new ways of visually designing interfaces became possible. It included the use of color, imagery, typography, amongst others.

3.1.1. e.g. Windows, icons, menus.

4. Multimedia

4.1. It combines different media within a single interface, namely, graphics, text, video, sound, and animations, and links them with various forms of interactivity.

4.1.1. e.g. TV and any type of digital video platform.

5. Virtual Reality

5.1. This interface uses computer-generated graphical simulations to create “the illusion of participation in a synthetic environment. Virtual Reality is the experience of interacting with an artificial environment, which makes it feel virtually real.

5.1.1. e.g. VR formats, 3D formats, IMAX Theaters.

6. Information visualization

6.1. computer-generated graphics of complex data that are typically interactive and dynamic.

6.1.1. The goal is to amplify human cognition, enabling users to see patterns, trends, and anomalies in the visualization and from this to gain insight.

7. Web

7.1. Since the 1990s, many web designers have tried to develop sites that are aesthetically pleasing, usable, and easy to maintain. Graphical design was viewed as a top priority.

7.1.1. A goal was to make web pages distinctive, striking, and pleasurable for the user when they first view them and also to make them readily recognizable on their return

7.1.1.1. e.g. HTML

8. Consumer electronics and apliances

8.1. Consumer electronics and appliances include machines for everyday use in the home, public place, or car.

8.1.1. e.g. DVD players, MP3 players.

9. Mobile

9.1. Mobile devices have become pervasive, with people increasingly using them in all aspects of their everyday and working lives.

9.1.1. They have become business tools to clinch important deals; a remote control for the real world, helping people cope with daily travel delay frustrations; and a relationship appliance to say goodnight to loved ones when away from home.

9.1.1.1. e.g. Laptops, tablets, smartphones.

10. Speech

10.1. A speech or voice user interface is where a person talks with a system that has a spoken language application, like a train timetable, a travel planner, or a phone service.

10.1.1. t is most commonly used for inquiring about specific information (e.g. flight times) or to perform a transaction (e.g. buy a ticket or top-up a cell phone account).

11. Pen

11.1. Pen-based devices enable people to write, draw, select, and move objects at an interface using lightpens or styluses that capitalize on the well-honed drawing and writing skills that are developed from childhood.

11.1.1. They have been used to interact with tablets and large displays, instead of mouse or keyboard input, for selecting items and supporting freehand sketching.

12. Touch

12.1. work by detecting the presence and location of a person's touch on the display; options are selected by tapping on the screen.

12.1.1. e.g. ticket machines, museum guides.

13. Air-based gesture

13.1. Camera capture, sensor, and computer vision techniques have advanced such that it is now possible to fairly accurately recognize people's body, arm, and hand gestures in a room.

13.1.1. e.g. Various video games.

14. Haptic

14.1. Haptic interfaces provide tactile feedback, by applying vibration and forces to the person, using actuators that are embedded in their clothing or a device they are carrying

14.1.1. e.g. Cellphone

15. Multimodal

15.1. Multimodal interfaces are intended to provide enriched and complex user experiences by multiplying the way information is experienced and controlled at the interface through using different modalities, i.e. touch, sight, sound, speech.

15.1.1. Interface techniques that have been combined for this purpose include speech and gesture, eye-gaze and gesture, and pen input and speech.

16. Shareable

16.1. Shareable interfaces are designed for more than one person to use. Unlike PCs, laptops, and mobile devices – that are aimed at single users – they typically provide multiple inputs and sometimes allow simultaneous input by collocated groups.

16.1.1. e.g. SmartBoards

17. Tangible

17.1. Tangible interfaces use sensor-based interaction, where physical objects, e.g. bricks, balls, and cubes, are coupled with digital representations.

17.1.1. When a person manipulates the physical object, it is detected by a computer system via the sensing mechanism embedded in the physical object, causing a digital effect to occur, such as a sound, animation, or vibration.

18. Augmented and mixed reality

18.1. augmented reality are interfaces that bridge the physical and digital worlds. Virtual representations are superimposed on physical devices and objects, and mixed reality, where views of the real world are combined with views of a virtual environment

18.1.1. e.g. X-rays and scans simulators

19. Wearable

20. Robotic

20.1. Robots play an important role as part of manufacturing assembly lines, as remote investigators of hazardous locations, and as search and rescue helpers in disasters, or far-away places.

20.1.1. e.g. nuclear power stations and bomb disposal, fire robots, Mars rovers.

21. Brain-computer

21.1. Brain–computer interfaces (BCI) provide a communication pathway between a person's brain waves and an external device, such as a cursor on a screen or a tangible puck that moves via airflow

21.1.1. The person is trained to concentrate on the task. e.g. moving the cursor or the puck.