Theorists

Mind Map A ECH Theory and PracticeECH 332-002

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Theorists by Mind Map: Theorists

1. John Locke

1.1. All children are fundamentally individuals

1.1.1. experieces after birth help shape nature & learning

1.2. Against strong use of punishment

1.2.1. displine provided through good examples

1.3. Learning should develop with the efficient use of 5 senses; sensation & reflextion

1.3.1. Further extended the notion from Comenius

1.4. Did not outline a detailed curriculum but cited important components.

1.4.1. Importance of play for curriculum development

1.4.2. Children learn to read when they learn to speak

1.4.3. Physical condition is related to mental development

1.4.4. Curriculum should be structured around individual needs of children

2. Jean Jacques Rousseau

2.1. Children will not mature appropriately if forced.

2.1.1. Children should be children.

2.2. Children grow in learning stages; Infancy, Age of Nature, Pre-adolescence, Puberty, & Adulthood.

2.3. Lack of knowledge @ birth was recieved through education.

2.3.1. Children are dependent on nature & adults.

2.4. Designed curriculum around the interests of children.

2.4.1. Education should be naturally taught until age 12

3. Johnann Pestalozzi

3.1. Believed learning and education should be aligned w/ nature development

3.1.1. Greatly influenced by Pestalozzi

3.1.2. All children have a right to education

3.1.3. Best way for children to learn is through self-discovery.

3.2. 3 major curriculum components emphasized

3.2.1. The intellectual

3.2.2. The physical

3.2.3. The moral-religious

3.2.4. "How Gertrude Teachers Her Children" ; major impact on curriculum

4. William Frobel

4.1. Believed play was critical to advance learning

4.1.1. Used play as teaching strategy

4.1.2. created appropriate games and songs to enhance interactions.

4.2. Most noted for his Kindergarten curriculum

4.2.1. The father of kindergarten education

4.2.2. Social curriculum; avaliable to all children

4.2.3. Play & hardwork activities; paper folding, cutting, coloring, and tracing

4.3. Developed a number of instructional materials

4.3.1. Materials became the heart of his educational system

4.3.2. Materials were called his gift and occupations

5. John Dewey

5.1. Children mature & grow through life experiences.

5.2. Viewed education as a lifelong process

5.2.1. Advocated play in education

5.3. Important for children to learn by doing

5.3.1. Education should come from natural curiosity with direction & guidance.

5.4. Promoted problem solving to help students identify solutions to daily problems in curriculum.

5.4.1. Important aspect of curriculum was placing responsibility of learning into the child's hands.

6. Maria Montessori

6.1. Believed children learned through a number of sensative periods during early years.

6.1.1. Children have greatest capacity to learn & develop.

6.2. Curriculum built on the basic philosophy that children should be active participants in learning.

6.2.1. similar principles developed by Froebel

6.2.2. Role of teachers to be passive but avaliable to help guide & protect

6.2.3. Incorporate the use of instructional materials

6.2.4. Used a variety of didactic materials

6.2.5. Motor education, practical life skill development, preparation for reading music, language & knowledge of the world, were also part of curriculum.

7. John Amos Comenius

7.1. stage set during pregnancy

7.1.1. healthy & happy thoughts

7.1.2. healthy home enviornment

7.2. Human mind= infinite capacity for knowledge

7.3. Children learn through nature & knowledge through real life experiences

7.4. Education should follow nature & learning is best achieved when senses are involved.

7.4.1. Children should make connections between what they are learning and real life encounters.

7.5. Curriculum divided into 3 areas of focus

7.5.1. Things children should know

7.5.2. Things children should be able to do

7.5.3. Things children should be able to say

7.6. Counting, learning colors, simple attributes, cutting, splitting, simple hymns, & geography were also a part of curriculum.

7.7. Was the first to put pictures in textbooks

7.7.1. They assist objects to make an impression on the mind

7.7.2. They accustom children the idea that pleasure is derived from books

7.7.3. They aid children in learning to read