Structure of the Skin

Basic Layers of the Skin and their features and functions.

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Structure of the Skin by Mind Map: Structure of the Skin

1. Epidermis

1.1. Stratum Basale

1.1.1. Deepest Layer

1.1.2. Single layer of cells attached to Basement Membrane

1.1.3. Keratinocytes:

1.1.3.1. most common

1.1.3.2. go through cell division to replace cells that shed on the surface

1.1.3.3. produce Keratin, a tough structural protein

1.1.3.3.1. Keratin strengthens and waterproofs skin.

1.1.4. Melanocytes

1.1.4.1. scattered among Keratinocytes

1.1.4.2. produce Melanin, a pigment

1.1.4.2.1. product of reaction w/ UV light

1.1.4.2.2. transferred to Keratinocytes and surrounds nucleus to protect mutation of DNA through UV radiation

1.1.5. Tactile Cells

1.1.5.1. also scattered among Keratinocytes

1.1.5.2. light touch receptors

1.2. Stratum Spinosum

1.2.1. Daughter Keratinocytes

1.2.1.1. made from dividing cells in Stratum Basale layer below

1.2.1.2. connect to neighboring cells by Desmosomes

1.2.1.2.1. gives prickly appearance

1.2.2. Epidermal Dendritic Cells

1.2.2.1. immune cells that help fight infections in the skin

1.3. Stratum Granulosum

1.3.1. 3-5 layers of Keratinocytes

1.3.2. Keratinization occurs in this layer

1.3.2.1. the Keratinocytes fill in Keratin protein

1.3.2.2. process continues as cells move upwards in Epidermis

1.3.2.3. elimination of nucleus and organelles => death of cells

1.4. Stratum Lucidum

1.4.1. Found in Thick Skin areas

1.4.2. Keratinocytes

1.4.2.1. are clear, flat, closely packed and they lack nucleus and organelles

1.4.2.2. filled with protein called Eleidin, which becomes Keratin

1.5. Stratum Corneum

1.5.1. Top-most Layer

1.5.2. Comprised of dead Keratinized cells

1.5.3. 2 weeks for new Keratinocytes to reach this layer

1.5.4. 2 weeks for them to shed

2. Dermis

2.1. made of Connective Tissue Proper

2.2. Collagen - most plentiful fibre found throughout the Dermis

2.3. houses : Arrector Pili, Nerve Endings, Sebacious Glands, Blood Vessels, Sweat Glands, Hair Follicles

2.4. Papillary Layer

2.4.1. top superficial layer of the dermis

2.4.2. composed of Loose Connective Tissue, Dermal Papillae and Epidermal Ridges.

2.4.2.1. Dermal Pappilae (finger-like projections) fit into the Epidermal Ridges

2.4.2.2. increases surface area of contact b/w the 2 layers.

2.4.3. Dermal Papillae

2.4.3.1. Capillaries - supply nutrients to Epidermal cells

2.4.3.2. Sensory Nerve Endings - help monitor touch to the surface of the skin

2.5. Reticular Layer

2.5.1. composed of Dense Connective Tissue. elastic fibres and bundles of collagen

2.5.2. extends deeper to Subcutaneous Layer

3. Subcutanous Layer

3.1. below the Dermis

3.2. A.K.A Hypodermis

3.3. composed of Loose Connective Tissue and Adipose Connective Tissue (a.k.a Suncutaneous Fat)

3.4. Functions

3.4.1. binds the skin to underlaying structures

3.4.2. acts as a cushion

3.4.3. protects the body

3.4.4. heat insulation

3.4.5. energy storage