K-12 Online Learning

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K-12 Online Learning by Mind Map: K-12 Online Learning

1. Students

1.1. Who are they?

1.1.1. Anyone, there is not a "typical" online learner

1.1.2. Mostly grades 9-12

1.1.3. advanced learners, struggling learners, AP/IB content, elite athletes, homeschool, homebound, etc.

1.2. What do they need?

1.2.1. opportunity to "learn how to learn"

1.2.2. access to technology, internet

1.2.3. orientation to online learning

1.2.4. online learning skills

1.2.4.1. time management

1.2.4.2. self-advocacy

1.2.4.3. self-regulation skills

1.2.4.3.1. learner initiative

1.2.4.3.2. intrinsic motivation

1.2.4.3.3. personal responsibility

1.2.4.4. study skills

1.2.4.4.1. online reading skills

1.2.4.4.2. computer-based note-taking skills

1.2.4.5. successful students need

1.2.4.5.1. tolerance for ambiguity

1.2.4.5.2. need for autonomy

1.2.4.5.3. ability to be flexible

1.2.5. interactions

1.2.5.1. teacher-student!!!

1.2.5.1.1. lots to reduce transactional distance

1.2.5.1.2. attention of instructor impactful on student success

1.2.5.2. peer-peer

1.2.5.2.1. has potential to foster additional instructional support for students

1.2.5.3. with content

1.2.5.4. with learning management system

1.2.5.4.1. lots of structure to reduce transactional distance

1.2.6. control over learning place, pace, path, & time

1.2.7. parental involvement

1.2.7.1. impacts student achievement

1.2.7.2. nurturing, supportive environment

1.2.7.3. organizational help

1.2.7.4. behavior monitoring

1.2.7.5. assistance with learning content

2. Teachers

2.1. Who are they?

2.1.1. average of 8 years classroom experience

2.1.2. full-time or part-time - schools rely heavily on part-time

2.1.3. many (not all!) present with masters degrees

2.1.4. combine love of teaching with love of tech

2.1.5. seek better way to connect with students & build a better sense of community

2.1.6. switch to online because of overwhelm by demands of traditional teaching; seek to truly be able to instruct

2.1.7. large variance in ages - many fall between 26-35/36-45

2.2. What skills do they need?

2.2.1. redesigned pre-service teacher prep programming

2.2.2. high levels of communication

2.2.3. professional development geared towards competency-based education

2.2.4. up-to-date, visible gradebook

2.2.5. timely communication & feedback

2.2.6. highly organized

2.2.6.1. in personal tracking reponsibilities

2.2.6.2. patterns of course design, navigation for student use

2.2.7. collaborative nature

2.2.8. regularly monitoring, evaluative behaviors, data analysis

2.2.9. high level of accountability

2.2.10. familiarity with FAQs of tech used by students

2.2.11. office hour availability

2.2.12. mediate online conflict/bullying behaviors amongst students

2.2.13. tutor, intervention/remediation specialist

2.2.14. create social presence opportunities for students

2.2.15. nurture student relationship to tech

2.3. Roles

2.3.1. shift from teacher to facilitator in student-centerd learning

2.3.2. motivator, "cheerleader"

2.3.3. impromptu tech support

2.3.4. champion facilitator of discourse between self, student, & parent

2.3.5. nurturer to foster relationships between students; socializing agent

2.3.6. mentor - many different models, but role of teacher/mentor can merge

2.4. What keeps them satisfied?

2.4.1. flexibility in when, where, how they teach

2.4.1.1. ability to have some control over modifying/adapting content to meet individual student needs

2.4.1.2. any time, any place instruction

2.4.2. provision of time to interact with individual students

2.4.2.1. asynchromous communication increases interactions not allowed within constraints of F2F time limits

2.4.3. evidence of teacher efforts positively impacting student performance

2.4.3.1. appreciate support of administration to increase this capacity

3. Drawbacks

3.1. no set quality standards

3.1.1. admin must balance keeping teachers satisfied in what, where, when, how they teach while also maintaining course quality & standardization

3.2. all online learning opportunities are not created equal

3.3. potential lack of participation in online learning environment by ELL populations

3.4. course completion definition is fuzzy for State Virtual Schools

3.5. tech skill challenges

3.5.1. impact student learning/performance

3.5.2. teachers sometimes more confident in content knowledge than tech knowledge

3.6. online learning may be best suited for particular type of student

3.6.1. self-motivated

3.6.2. structured

3.6.3. tech experience

3.6.4. academic self-confidence

3.6.5. good attitude toward content

3.7. digital divide

3.7.1. affordability of computer, internet access

3.7.2. even if tech is provided to student, digital literacy gap still exists

3.8. transactional distance - space of potential misunderstanding between instructor/learner

3.9. online learner performance & struggles for low-income, historically low-performing learners

3.10. on-going funding issues stemming from misunderstanding between full-time & supplemental offerings

3.11. teacher ability to establish boundaries between professional responsibilities & personal life

3.12. lack of responsiveness by students

3.12.1. teacher frustration/lowered satisfaction when ignored or rejected by students

3.13. neuroplasticity concept through increased use of tech

3.13.1. parts of brain involved with "mutil-tasking" get stronger

3.13.2. parts of brain involved with deep concentration, conceptual knowledge, critical thinking getting weaker

3.13.3. will kids become less effective/more productive and lose the ability to be very effective at one thing at a time?

3.14. "teens learning how to drink from a technological fire hose"

3.14.1. brain's reward pathway is triggered when something on the internet is fun; speed of internet use triggering reward pathway is rapid = "addiction"

3.15. if balance in Community of Inquiry framework is not maintained, feelings of isolation can be experienced due to a limited sense of community

3.15.1. teacher disconnection from students due to absent/limited interactions

3.15.2. teacher disconnection from peer colleagues; lack of opportunities to collaborate

3.15.3. teachers disconnected from sense of being a professional due to limited roles in online classes than in traditional classrooms

4. Trends

4.1. studies show Special Populations have excellent results in online learning programs

4.1.1. Michigan virtual pass rate 55%

4.1.1.1. virtual pass rate 49% for students in poverty

4.2. State Virtual Schools

4.2.1. enrollment in world language courses increasing

4.2.2. behind core subjects/world languages, health & fitness courses are next highest

4.2.3. health & fitness enrollments more than doubled between 2014-15 and 2016-17

4.2.4. middle school enrollment growing rapidly

4.3. states passing legislation

4.3.1. requiring students to take online course before graduating

4.3.2. ensuring school choice options

4.4. people are writing more than ever; estimated 3.3 trillion words written each day on the internet

4.4.1. kids are writing 40% more than ever before

4.5. enrollment in virtual schools in 5 key states shows demographics opposite of national data trends

4.5.1. enrollment increasing in students of color & students qualifying for free/reduced lunch

5. Benefits

5.1. allows for improved, deeper understanding of content through experiences that mirror real-life

5.2. prepares students for life after high school

5.3. ability for students to make exponentially more connections with people, tech, resources, etc.

5.4. collaborative, communicative, interactive dialogue

5.5. individualized, student-centered, students get what they need when they need it

5.6. take courses otherwise unavailable

5.7. "anytime, any place" learning

5.8. technology can help to tailor curriculum to meet needs of individual students

5.9. tech allows for rich learning experiences

5.9.1. interactive sites

5.9.2. web-based simulations

5.9.3. real-world applications

5.10. focus of teaching shifts from content to student!

5.11. purposeful interactions between teacher & every student, every day!

5.12. having an audience to write for makes for better writers

5.12.1. writing online for an audience shows kids are writing longer, more complicated pieces

6. Myths

6.1. students lose opportunities for socialization offered in F2F environment

6.2. teachers are not active participants

6.3. students will already be familiar with tech because they're "digital natives"

6.4. online learning costs less than traditional learning

6.5. online learning is easier

7. FCPS Online Campus

7.1. courses available for high school credit

7.2. course curriculum identical in content

7.2.1. aligns with VA SOLs, AP standards, follows FCPS POS

7.3. uses multimedia to engage students

8. Policy

8.1. taxpayer dollars going to fund public education should be able to follow a student in making a school choice that best suits their educational needs!

8.2. sometimes gets in the way of students accessing high quality learning opportunities or what kind of educational opportunities will be available to them

8.3. geographic reach of online learning shows education policies may be outdated

8.4. school choice

8.4.1. state-level program to support and help in course selection & access

8.4.1.1. web-based hub providing info on course choice

8.4.1.2. funding follows student

8.4.2. offer school choice, but lack state-level program to oversee implementation

8.4.2.1. enrollment usually lower due to less promotion of online courses

9. Categories of Online Learning Programs

9.1. State Virtual Schools

9.1.1. largest, most recognized providers of online learning and related services

9.1.1.1. professional development, ELL, credit recovery, learning labs, workforce-relevant proficiency, in addition to online learning curriculum

9.1.1.2. services needed to implement variety of online learning approaches: access to courses, learning management systems, professional development for blended learning instructions, tech support

9.1.1.3. college & career readiness, career & tech education

9.1.2. usually funded by state appropriation, course fees, grants

9.1.3. provide teacher-led online courses, have admin, enroll students, hire/train teachers, maintain tech infrastructure to deliver & support online courses

9.1.4. may create own content, license content from vendors, use OERs, or combination

9.1.5. supplemental

9.1.6. usually governed by state education agency

9.2. Multi-district

9.2.1. usually governed by charter or district

9.2.2. full-time

9.2.3. public education funding

9.3. Single-district

9.3.1. district governance, funding, & reach

9.3.2. full-time and/or supplemental

9.4. Consortium

9.4.1. full-time and/or supplemental

9.4.2. course fee & member fee funded

9.4.3. state, national, global reach

9.5. Post-secondary

9.5.1. university/college governance

9.5.2. full-time and/or supplemental

9.5.3. funded by course fees

9.5.4. national reach

10. Types of Online Education programs

10.1. 4 significant dimensions

10.1.1. Comprehensiveness: supplemental vs full time

10.1.2. Geographical Reach

10.1.3. Delivery: synchronous vs asynchronous

10.1.4. Type of Instruction: fully online vs fully traditional

11. Definitions

11.1. Online Learning

11.1.1. teacher-led instruction taking place over the internet where teacher and student are geographically separated

11.1.2. includes web-based delivery system with software to provide structured learning environment

11.1.3. can be accessed in multiple settings

11.2. Blended Learning

11.2.1. combines online learning with other modes of instructional delivery

11.3. supplemental program

11.3.1. counted by course enrollment

11.4. full-time program

11.4.1. counted by student enrollment

12. Transactional Distance Theory

12.1. dialog

12.1.1. interaction between learners/teachers

12.1.1.1. one of largest factors in determining student success in online learning

12.1.1.2. more dialog = less transactional distance

12.2. structure

12.2.1. design of instructional programs

12.2.1.1. less structure = more transactional distance

12.3. autonomy

12.3.1. degree of self-directedness of learner

12.3.1.1. course designed for more autonomy + less dialog = more transactional distance

12.4. psychological/communication space to be crossed