Learning Theories

Learning Theories

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Learning Theories by Mind Map: Learning Theories

1. Behavioral Learning Theory

1.1. Worldview that operates on a principle of "stimulus-response."

1.1.1. Developed from 1920 through the mid-1950s Contributors B. F. Skinner John B. Watson Ivan Pavlov E. L. Thorndike Albert Bandura Characteristics The learner starts off as a clean slate Behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. Both Positive and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again. Learning is defined as a change in behavior in the learner

2. Cognitive information Processing Theory

2.1. Developed in 1968

2.1.1. Richard Shiffrin

2.1.2. John William Atkinson

2.2. Characteristics

2.2.1. Known as "Information Processing"

2.2.2. Information processing theories focus on how people: 1. Attend to environmental events 2. Encode information to be learned and relate it to knowledge in memory 3. Store new knowledge in memory 4. Retrieve it as needed.

2.2.3. Learners are viewed as active seekers and processors of information

2.2.4. CIP Memory Model

3. Schema Theory & Cognitive Load

3.1. Developed late 1980's

3.1.1. John Sweller Published a paper in the journal Cognitive Science in 1988.

3.1.2. Chase, Simon, 1973 Chunk information Schema Construction

3.1.3. Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968 Information Processing Thory (CIP) Sensory Input Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory

3.1.4. Miller, 1956 7+ or -2 Cognitive process bogs down Short term memory

3.2. Characteristics

3.2.1. Long Term Memory = "sophisticated structures that permit us to perceive, think, and solve problems," AKA- schemas Permit treating mulitple elements as a single element.

4. Gagne's Theory of Instruction

4.1. Developed in 1956

4.1.1. Robert M. Gagne Best known for Condtions of Learning Developed a series of studies of his belief's in "Good Instruction" His work is sometimes called "The Gagne Assumption" Involved in applying concepts of instructional theory to design: Web-based learning multimedia-based learning "Organization is the Hallmark of effective instructional materials."

4.2. Characteristics

4.2.1. Based on the information processing and mental events when adults are presented with various stimuli

4.2.2. First Step Specifying the kind of outcomes to be achieved. Five types of outcomes

4.2.3. Second Step Organize "Events of Instruction" 9-Step Model

4.2.4. Conditions of Learning Internal conditions = what learner prior knowledge External deals with the stimulations that are presented to the learner.

4.2.5. Ideal Number of Learners for this kind of session is 4 or 5.

5. Constructivism

5.1. Developed early on by Vygotsky and his publications did not appear in English until after 1960.

5.1.1. Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky Social Development Theory Argues that social interaction precedes developed; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior. One of the foundations of Constructivism Social interaction fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. Three Major Themes

5.1.2. Jean Piaget Stage theory of Cognitive Development Developed as four distinct stages in children

5.1.3. John Dewey

5.1.4. Jerome Seymour Bruner Discovery Learning Key Concepts Critics believe that it:

5.2. Characteristics

5.2.1. The Learner has prior knowledge and experiences , which is also determined by their social and cultural environment.

5.2.2. Learning is an active, constructive process

5.2.3. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality.

5.2.4. New information is linked to prior knowledge.

6. Connectivism

6.1. Developed 2005

6.1.1. George Siemens The originator of Connectivism Theory and author of the article Connectivism

6.1.2. Stephen Downes Explored and promoted the educational use of computer and online technologies since 1995

6.2. Characteristics

6.2.1. Learning theory that explains how internet technologies have created new opportunities for people to learn and share information across the World Wide Web and among themselves.

6.2.2. Technologies can include: Web Browsers Email wikis online discussion forums social networks YouTube

6.2.3. Much learning can happen acrosss peer networks that take place online.

6.2.4. MOOC (cMOOC) open to anyone across the Web to facilitate learning and sharing

7. Merrill's First Principle of Instruction

7.1. Developed in 2002

7.1.1. M. David Merrill

7.2. Characteristics

7.2.1. Merrill's five principles are: 1. Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems 2. Learning is promoted when existing knowledge [and skill] is activated as a foundation [and skill]. 3. Learning is promoted when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner. 4. Learning is promoted when new knowledge is applied by the learner. 5. Learning is promoted when new knowledge is integrated into the learner's world.