TOPIC 2 : DATA AND DATA REPRESENTATION

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TOPIC 2 : DATA AND DATA REPRESENTATION by Mind Map: TOPIC 2 : DATA AND DATA REPRESENTATION

1. Data, Information & Processing

1.1. data formats

1.1.1. computers

1.1.1.1. process & store all forms of data

1.1.2. human communication

1.1.2.1. language

1.1.2.2. images

1.1.2.3. sound

1.1.3. data formats

1.1.3.1. converting data into computer-usable form

1.1.3.2. defined the different ways human data

1.2. information

1.2.1. input

1.2.2. process

1.2.2.1. data

1.2.2.1.1. collection of unprocessed items

1.2.2.2. information

1.2.2.2.1. conveys meaning

1.2.3. output

1.2.4. storage activities

1.3. processing

1.3.1. data coding

1.3.1.1. alphanumeric

1.3.1.1.1. ASCII

1.3.1.1.2. EBCDIC

1.3.1.1.3. Unicode

1.3.1.2. image

1.3.1.2.1. JPEG

1.3.1.2.2. GIF

1.3.1.2.3. PCX

1.3.1.2.4. TIFF

1.3.1.3. motion picture

1.3.1.3.1. MPEG-2

1.3.1.3.2. Quick Time

1.3.1.4. sound

1.3.1.4.1. Sound Blaster

1.3.1.4.2. WAV

1.3.1.4.3. AU

1.3.1.5. outline graphics/fonts

1.3.1.5.1. PostScript

1.3.1.5.2. TrueType

1.3.1.5.3. PDF

1.3.2. data storage and compression

1.3.2.1. data storage

1.3.2.1.1. reduce the size of data

1.3.2.2. compression

1.3.2.2.1. lossless

1.3.2.2.2. lossy

1.3.3. data integrity

1.3.3.1. compliance

1.3.3.2. correctness

1.3.3.3. completeness

1.3.3.4. consistency

1.3.3.5. validity

2. Bits, Bytes, and Words

2.1. bits

2.1.1. basic unit of information

2.1.2. defined as a variable

2.1.3. interpreted as a binary digits

2.2. bytes

2.2.1. unit of digital information

2.2.2. encode a single character of text

2.3. words

2.3.1. term for the natural unit of data

3. Numbering system

3.1. bases

3.1.1. decimal

3.1.1.1. base 10

3.1.1.1.1. used on decimal digit to represent number

3.1.1.1.2. used on decimal digit to represent number

3.1.2. binary

3.1.2.1. base 2

3.1.2.2. used for instruction and data

3.1.2.3. natural relationship between on/off switches

3.1.2.4. calculation using Boolean logic

3.1.3. octal

3.1.3.1. base 8

3.1.3.1.1. only eight different digits available

3.1.4. hexadecimal

3.1.4.1. base 16

3.1.4.1.1. used to represent sequence of binary digits

4. The Alphanumeric Representation

4.1. ASCII

4.1.1. an acronym for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange

4.1.2. it is a standard seven-bit code

4.1.3. provide a standard to code various symbols

4.2. Unicode

4.2.1. a worldwide character-encoding standard

4.2.2. 16-bit standard

4.2.3. it is a superset of ASCII

4.3. EBCDIC

4.3.1. conversion software to/from ASCII available

4.3.2. restricted mainly to IBM or IBM compatible mainframes

4.3.3. common in archival data

4.3.4. character codes differ from ASCII

5. ACSII vs Unicode

5.1. ACSII

5.1.1. has 128 code points

5.1.2. only encode characters in 7 bits

5.1.3. only encode characters from the English language

5.2. Unicode

5.2.1. has about 1,114,112 code points

5.2.2. encode characters in 16-bits and more

5.2.3. has about 1,114,112 code points

6. Usage of Unicode

6.1. encodes test characters for creation of passwords

6.2. encodes characters to display in all webpages

6.3. encode characters used in email settings

7. Keyboard Input

7.1. key "scan" codes are converted to ASCII

7.2. ASCII code sent to host computer

7.3. received by the host as a "stream" of data

7.4. stored in buffer and being processed