Poder e Influência

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Poder e Influência by Mind Map: Poder e Influência

1. – Warmth contributes more to others’ evaluations of us

2. is a social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations) that that are connected together by ties.

3. Influence Style

3.1. Is it better to be feared or loved?

3.1.1. – New princes cannot avoid cruelty, because they face dangerous situations

3.1.2. – Love is held in place by chains of obligation, which can be broken by the “target” if self-interest is at stake

3.1.3. – Fear is held in place by the dread of punishment, which the prince controls

3.1.4. – Even if a reputation for “cruelty” cannot be avoided, a prince must “do all in his power to escape being hated”

3.2. Influences Tactics

3.2.1. Pull

3.2.1.1. – Assertiveness

3.2.1.2. – Reasoning, rationality – Coercing

3.2.1.3. – Stating expectations

3.2.2. Push

3.2.2.1. – Listening

3.2.2.2. – Disclosing

3.2.2.3. – Exchange

3.2.2.4. – Finding common ground

3.3. Connect, then lead

3.3.1. Warmth

3.3.1.1. How lovable are they?

3.3.1.2. Does this person have positive intentions towards me?

3.3.1.3. We are often not as trusted as we think; our good intentions are not necessarily obvious to others

3.3.1.4. – Warmth is consistently judged more quickly/early than competence

3.3.1.5. – Judgments of warmth lead to greater trust

3.3.2. Competence

3.3.2.1. How fearsome are they?

3.3.2.2. Is he or she capable of acting on those intentions?

3.4. The personal qualities that bring influence

3.4.1. develop personal qualities that bring influence

3.4.1.1. – Understand the most importante qualities for building a power base

3.4.1.2. – Objectvely see one’s own strengths and weaknesses

3.4.2. The DRIVE to take on big challenges

3.4.2.1. Ambition

3.4.2.1.1. • Maintain focus and resist temptation to give up

3.4.2.2. Energy

3.4.2.2.1. •Is contagious, makes other people more energetic

3.4.2.2.2. • More hours and more intensity = more work!

3.4.2.2.3. • Demonstrates loyalty and commitment

3.4.2.3. Focus

3.4.2.3.1. On industry

3.4.2.3.2. On specific skills or activities

3.4.2.3.3. On most critical aspects

3.4.2.4. Reflective mindset

3.4.2.4.1. Self-knowledge from structured reflection

3.4.2.5. Confidence

3.4.2.5.1. Projecting confidence associated with having power

3.4.2.6. Understand and empathize with others

3.4.2.6.1. Avoid focusing too much on end goal or own perspective

3.4.2.7. Tolerate conflict

3.4.2.7.1. Most people would rather agree than stand up for own views

3.4.3. – Accept that personal change is possible

3.4.4. Additional sources of influence

3.4.4.1. Track record

3.4.4.1.1. a manager’s task and organizationally relevent experience can give power.

3.4.4.2. Effort

3.4.4.2.1. Effort is highly regarded and often associated with expertise and contribution to the organization.

3.4.4.3. Attractiveness

3.4.4.3.1. Effort is highly regarded and often associated with expertise and contribution to the organization.

4. Persuation

4.1. 6 Principles of Persuasion

4.1.1. 1. Liking

4.1.1.1. People like those who like them – Offer genuine praise for something

4.1.1.2. People like those who are like them – Find and communicate similarities

4.1.2. 2. Reciprocity

4.1.2.1. People repay in kind

4.1.2.1.1. Natural urge to “even out the balance”

4.1.2.1.2. – Give what you want to receive

4.1.2.1.3. – Build a sense of indebtedness

4.1.2.1.4. – The magic of unsolicited gifts

4.1.2.2. Include non-material giving

4.1.2.2.1. – Time

4.1.2.2.2. – Praise

4.1.2.2.3. – Effort

4.1.3. 3. Social proof

4.1.3.1. People follow the lead of similar others

4.1.3.2. Use peer power whenever it is available

4.1.3.3. Use references and testimonials

4.1.3.4. Select appropriate spokespeople

4.1.4. 4. Consistency

4.1.4.1. People defer to experts

4.1.4.1.1. Expert opinion serve as useful shortcut

4.1.4.1.2. – Don’t assume authority is selfevident

4.1.4.1.3. – Communicate

4.1.4.2. People align with their clear commitments

4.1.4.2.1. Desire to appear consistent to others

4.1.4.2.2. Encourage strong commitments

4.1.4.2.3. People want to act consistently with past opinions and actions

4.1.5. 5. Authority

4.1.6. 6. Scarcity

4.1.6.1. People want more of what they can have less of

4.1.6.1.1. Highlight unique benefits

4.1.6.1.2. – Leverage exclusive information

4.1.6.1.3. – Draw attention to possible losses

4.1.6.1.4. – Limit benefits

4.2. Even better, have another person communicate your expertise

4.3. Effective writing

4.3.1. Effective writing is

4.3.1.1. Clear

4.3.1.2. Concise

4.3.1.3. Readable

4.3.1.4. Understandable

4.3.1.5. Grammatically correct

4.3.2. Effective writing consists of

4.3.2.1. Effective paragraphs

4.3.2.1.1. Limitparagraphlength

4.3.2.1.2. Focusononetopicperparagraph(unity)

4.3.2.1.3. Includeacleartopicsentence,usuallyfirst

4.3.2.1.4. Link ideas (coherence)

4.3.2.2. Effective sentences

4.3.2.2.1. Limit sentence length

4.3.2.2.2. Limit sentence complexity

4.3.2.2.3. Use appropriate and consistent tense

4.3.2.2.4. Use passive voice selectively

4.3.2.2.5. Avoid unclear pronouns

4.3.2.2.6. Focus on most important (people?)

4.3.2.2.7. Use direct organization

4.3.2.3. Correct and accurate use of English

4.3.3. Direct or indirect pattern

4.3.3.1. Effective wording

4.3.3.2. The Indirect Pattern

4.3.3.2.1. Gaining Attention

4.3.3.2.2. Building Interest

4.3.3.2.3. Reducing Resistance

4.3.3.2.4. Motivating Action

4.4. How to persuade

4.4.1. Clearly define your purpose(s)

4.4.1.1. Getaudiencebuy-in?Getaudiencetoact?

4.4.1.2. Makesureaudienceknowswhattodo

4.4.1.3. Maintain a positive relationship...its probably not a one-shot deal

4.4.2. Focus on your audience

4.4.2.1. Who are they?

4.4.2.2. What’s In It For Them? (WIIFT)

4.4.2.2.1. – Direct and indirect benefits

4.4.2.2.2. – Rational and emotional benefits

4.4.2.3. Why would they not ..?

4.4.3. Receiver vs. Sender focus

4.4.3.1. Sender-focused

4.4.3.2. Receiver-focused

4.4.4. Focus on benefits (to them!)

4.4.4.1. Benefits vs.Features

4.4.4.2. Direct vs.indirect benefits

4.5. Necessary Art of Persuasion

4.5.1. Four ways not to persuade

4.5.1.1. Use up-front hard sell to make your case

4.5.1.2. – Resist compromisse

4.5.1.3. – Focus on presenting great arguments, and counter-arguments

4.5.1.4. – Look at persuasion as a one-shot efforts

4.5.2. Four essential steps to persuasion

4.5.2.1. Establish credibility

4.5.2.1.1. Expertise

4.5.2.1.2. Relationships

4.5.2.2. – Frame for common ground

4.5.2.2.1. Understand and adapt to audience

4.5.2.3. – Connect emotionally

4.5.2.3.1. Show own emotional commitment

4.5.2.3.2. Understand and connect to audience emotions

4.5.2.4. – Give evidence

4.5.2.4.1. Use vivid stories to connect, as well as numbers

5. Power and Social Networking

5.1. Networks

5.1.1. social network

5.1.2. Social Capital

5.1.2.1. is the resources—such as ideas, information, money, and trust—that you are able to access through your network.

5.1.3. Managerial Networks

5.1.3.1. set of relationships critical to your ability to get things done, get ahead, and develop personally and professionally

5.1.3.2. Network centrality

5.1.3.2.1. is key to success, regardless of position in the formal hierarchy

5.1.3.3. Informal connections give people access to

5.1.3.3.1. – information,

5.1.3.3.2. – expertise,

5.1.3.3.3. – opportunities,and

5.1.3.3.4. – personal support

5.1.3.4. Appreciate advantages and disadvantages of

5.1.3.4.1. Strong ties (support,loyalty)

5.1.3.4.2. Weak ties (information,variety)

5.2. Effective Networking

5.2.1. Variety of contacts

5.2.1.1. Diversity in terms of Organization, function, age, gender, region, Education, etc., gives range.

5.2.2. Different types of relationships

5.2.2.1. In terms of strong vs. weak tie strength, relationship duration, friendship versus instrumental, ...

5.2.3. Link to multiple networks

5.2.3.1. In low density networks contacts know each other less, and are more likely to bring in new information.

5.3. network characteristics

5.3.1. Breadth (tie number, content, diversity)

5.3.1.1. Breadth of ties refers to range of types of relational connections

5.3.1.2. Increased breadth means you can reach and connect with more sectors

5.3.1.2.1. – Expressivevs.Taskties

5.3.1.2.2. – With in professional specialty vs.Outside

5.3.1.2.3. – Private vs. Public vs. Non/profit

5.3.1.2.4. – Industry contacts and professional associations

5.3.1.2.5. – Domesticvs.International

5.3.2. Depth (frequency, strength, multiplexity)

5.3.2.1. Strong ties refer to your core network

5.3.2.1.1. – Circle of trust, similarity, reliability

5.3.2.1.2. Relevant to immediate task, professional and career support

5.3.2.2. Weak ties refer to your extended network

5.3.2.2.1. Importance of diversity

5.3.2.2.2. – Potential to reach“anyone”indirectly(“six degrees of separation”)

5.3.2.2.3. – New and unanticipated opportunities

5.3.2.3. Multiplex ties involve two or more types of connections

5.3.2.3.1. – E.g.,task/friendship, sports/academic

5.3.3. Density

5.3.3.1. Redundant“overlapping”contactsprovideidentity,a sense of community, and group support

5.3.4. Centrality (importance in network, betweenness)

5.3.5. Structural holes (bridging unconnected actors)

5.3.5.1. Brokers add value to networks by bridging structural holes between groups

5.3.5.1.1. – Brokers can be the only bridge, or

5.3.5.1.2. – Brokers can be most efficient path

5.3.5.2. Brokers can access, share, and combine unique information

5.3.6. Multiplexity (uni- versus multi-dimensional)

5.3.6.1. Non-redundant contacts are more eficiente, and give access to more diverse information

5.3.7. Network secrets of great change agents

5.3.7.1. Cohesive network = contacts connected to each other

5.3.7.1.1. Common connections increase levels of trust and support

5.3.7.1.2. People have to be consistente

5.3.7.2. Better for incremental/non-divergent change

5.3.7.2.1. • Trust should be sufficient for acceptance

5.3.7.2.2. • Coalitions not problematic

5.3.7.3. Bridging network = You bridge different individuals and groups

5.3.7.3.1. Access to novel information

5.3.7.3.2. Control passing of information

5.3.7.3.3. Adapt to different (unconnected) people

5.3.7.4. Better for radical / divergente change

5.3.7.4.1. Resisters less likely to form coalition(s)

5.3.7.4.2. Message can be adapted to different groups

5.3.7.4.3. Importance of having different perspectives

5.3.7.5. Network secrets of great change agents

5.3.7.5.1. Endorsers are positive about the change

5.3.7.5.2. Fence-sitters are +/- about the change

5.3.7.5.3. Resisters are negative about the change

5.4. Sources of position power

5.4.1. Relevance

5.4.1.1. positions have more relevance (power) when they are closely aligned with corporate priorities

5.4.2. Autonomy

5.4.2.1. the more discretion or freedom to make choices, the more power a person will have

5.4.3. Visibility

5.4.3.1. the more a person is visible within an Organization, and receives credit for their initiatives and performance, the more power they will have

6. How we Gain and Lose Power

6.1. Dependency: Key to Power

6.1.1. Importance

6.1.1.1. The things you control must be important

6.1.2. Scarcity

6.1.2.1. A resource must be perceived as scarce

6.1.3. Non-substitutability

6.1.3.1. The resource cannot be substituted with something else

6.2. Bases of Power (Raven & French)

6.2.1. Coercive power

6.2.1.1. One reacts to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if one failed to comply.

6.2.2. Reward power

6.2.2.1. People comply with the wishes or directives of another because doing so produces positive benefits

6.2.3. Legitimate power

6.2.3.1. represents the formal authority to control and use organizacional resources

6.2.4. Information Power

6.2.4.1. comes from access to and control over information

6.3. PERSONAL SOURCES OF POWER

6.3.1. Expert power

6.3.1.1. influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge

6.3.2. Referent power

6.3.2.1. based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits

6.3.3. Charismatic power

6.3.3.1. extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style

6.3.4. Effort

6.3.4.1. Effort is highly regarded and often associated with expertise and contribution to the organization.

6.3.5. Trackrecord

6.3.5.1. a manager’s task and organizationally relevant experience can give power.

6.3.6. Attractiveness

6.3.6.1. Effort is highly regarded and often associated with expertise and contribution to the organization.

6.4. Power play

6.4.1. Things powerful people do to gain advantage

6.4.1.1. 1. Distribute resources to get support, including

6.4.1.2. information and access

6.4.1.3. 2. Shape behavior through rewards and punishments

6.4.1.4. 3. Advance on multiple fronts

6.4.1.5. 4. Make the first – often unexpected – move

6.4.1.6. 5. Co-opt antagonists, by “bringing them inside”

6.4.1.7. 6. Remove rivals – nicely, if possible

6.4.1.8. 7. Stay focused on main objective, avoid drawing unnecessary fire.

6.4.1.9. 8. Use the personal touch, to communicate.

6.4.1.10. 9. Persist, wear the opposition down.

6.4.1.11. 10. Make importante relationships work, no matter what.

6.4.1.12. 11. Connect their objectives to a compelling vision.

6.5. Power tends to lead to

6.5.1. Reduced empathy

6.5.2. Immoral behavior

6.5.3. Self-serving impulsivity

6.5.4. Incivility and disrespect

6.5.5. Narratives of exceptionalism