Topic 1 : Introduction to Computers and Computer System

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Topic 1 : Introduction to Computers and Computer System by Mind Map: Topic 1 : Introduction to Computers and Computer System

1. Overview and History of Computers

1.1. Period

1.1.1. 1642-1940

1.2. 0th Generation

1.2.1. Technology Mechanical Era

1.2.2. Inventor/invention Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) Gottfried von Leibnitz (1646-1716) Charles Babbage (1792-1872) John V.Atanasoff and Clifford Berry

1.3. 1st Generation

1.3.1. Period 1940-1955

1.3.2. Technology Use vacuum tubes for circuitry & magnetic drums for memory Vacuum tubes Size is bulky/very large Made from glass Fragile Short-lived (heat-burned out) Computers relied on machine language & could only solve one problem at a time Input: punched cards & paper tape Output: displayed on printouts

1.3.3. Inventor/Invention ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) John W.Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert First all-electronic digital computer

1.3.4. Main features Vacuum tube technology Very costly Slow input and output devices Huge size Consumed lot of electricity

1.3.5. Type of Computer ENIAC EDVAC IAS UNIVAC IBM-701 IBM-650

1.4. 2nd Generation

1.4.1. Period 1955-1965

1.4.2. Technology Transistor

1.4.3. Inventor/Invention Made of specially treated silicon Generated less heat & wouldn’t burn out Allow computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper Use assembly languages

1.4.4. Main Features Use of transistors Reliable in comparison to first generation computers Smaller size Consumed less electricity Still very costly Supported machine and assembly languages

1.4.5. Type of Computer IBM 1620 IBM 7094 CDC 6600 UNIVAC 1108

1.5. 3rd Generation

1.5.1. Period 1965-1980

1.5.2. Technology Integrated Circuit based

1.5.3. Inventor/Invention used integrated circuits (IC's) in place of transistors The IC was invented by Jack Kilby made computers smaller in size, reliable and efficient. Used high level language

1.5.4. Main features More reliable Smaller size Generated less heat Still costly Consumed lesser electricity Supported high-level language

1.5.5. Type of Computer IBM-360 series Honeywell-6000 series TDC-316

1.6. 4th Generation

1.6.1. Period 1980 - Present

1.6.2. Technology VLSI microprocessor based

1.6.3. Inventor/Invention Microprocessors *(VLSI) Thousands of ICs built onto a single chip Could be mass produced (PCs) Computers become even smaller & more powerful Open architecture Anyone could write software or build hardware

1.6.4. Main features VLSI technology used Very cheap Portable and reliable Very small size Great developments in the fields of networks Computers became easily available

1.6.5. Type of computer DEC 10 STAR 1000 PDP 11 CRAY-1(Super Computer)

1.7. 5th Generation

1.7.1. Period Present - Beyond

1.7.2. Technology ULSI Technology

1.7.3. Inventor/Invention Artificial Intelligence Robotics Nano-technology Anything smaller than Microtechnology Age of Connectivity Shift towards technology that focuses on mobility

1.7.4. Main features ULSI technology Development of true artificial intelligence Development of Natural language processing Advancement in Parallel Processing More user friendly interfaces Advancement in Superconductor technology

1.7.5. Type of computer Desktop Laptop NoteBook

2. Basic Components of the Von Neumann Machine

2.1. John von Neumann

2.1.1. A genius

2.1.2. A consultant on the ENIAC project

2.1.3. Proposed significant improvements over the ENIAC design

2.2. Von Neumann Architecture

2.2.1. THE PRINCIPLES Data & instructions are both stored in main memory while being processed Sequential processing of instructions Binary data processing Consists of CPU, memory, & I/O system

2.2.2. Von Neumann Architecture Memory Short-term storage for CPU calculations, Holds both instructions and data of a computer program Input devices keyboard, mouse, scanner, punch cards Output devices monitor, printer, fax machine Storage hard drive, optical media, diskettes, magnetic tape Bus bundle of wires that carry signals and power between different components

2.2.3. A central processing unit (CPU) ALU: arithmetic/logic unit Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical calculations CU: control unit Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical calculations Controls movement of data within the CPU Interface unit Moves instructions and data between the CPU and other hardware components Bus: bundle of wires that carry signals and power between different components

2.2.4. a small set of circuits can be driven to perform very different tasks, depending on the software program, which is executed. The primary function of a CPU is to execute the instructions fetch from the main memory. An instruction tells the CPU to perform one of its basic operations. The CPU includes a set of registers, which are temporary storage devices typically used to hold

3. Modern Computer System and Hardware in Brief

3.1. What is a Computer?

3.1.1. A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store the results for future use.

3.2. The Components of a Computer

3.2.1. Hardware+Software=Computer

3.2.2. Hardware Device that processes data to create information Input Device Allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer Output Device Hardware component that conveys information to one or more people System Unit Case that contains the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data Storage Device Records (writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from storage media Communications Device Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices

3.2.3. Software It is also called a program. It’s purpose to convert data to useful information System Software Operating system Utility program provides an environment for user to execute the application software Application Software General-purposed Specialized Apps A program that performs a common task to the user.

3.3. Networks and the Internet

3.3.1. network is a collection of computers and devices connected together, often wirelessly, via communications devices and transmission media

3.3.2. Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals

3.4. Types of Computer

3.4.1. Supercomputers

3.4.2. Mainframe computers

3.4.3. Midrange computers

3.4.4. Personal computers