CSC116- CHAPTER 1

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CSC116- CHAPTER 1 by Mind Map: CSC116- CHAPTER 1

1. Overview and History of Computers

1.1. 1st Generation - 1940-1955

1.1.1. Technology

1.1.1.1. Vacuum tube

1.1.1.2. Vacuum tubes

1.1.1.3. Computers relied on machine language & could only solve one problem at a time

1.1.1.4. Input: punched cards & paper tape

1.1.1.5. Output: displayed on printouts

1.1.2. Inventor

1.1.2.1. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)

1.1.2.2. John W.Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert

1.1.2.3. First all-electronic digital computer

1.1.2.4. EDVAC, IAS and UNIVAC I (first commercially available computer)

1.1.3. Main Features

1.1.3.1. Vacuum tube technology

1.1.3.2. Unreliable

1.1.3.3. Very Costly

1.1.3.4. Supported machine language only

1.1.3.5. Generated lot of heat

1.1.3.6. Slow input and output devices

1.1.3.7. Huge size

1.1.3.8. Need of A.C.

1.1.3.9. Non portable

1.1.3.10. Consumed lot of electricity

1.1.4. Type Of Computer

1.1.4.1. ADVAC

1.1.4.2. IAS

1.1.4.3. UNIVAC

1.1.4.4. IBM-701

1.1.4.5. IBM-650

1.1.4.6. ENIAC

1.2. 0th Generation - 1642-1940

1.2.1. Mechanical Era

1.3. 2nd Generation - 1955-1965

1.3.1. Inventor/invention

1.3.2. Technology

1.3.3. Main features

1.3.3.1. Use of transistors

1.3.3.2. Reliable in comparison to first generation computers

1.3.3.3. Smaller size as compared to first generation computers

1.3.3.4. Generated less heat as compared to first generation computers

1.3.3.5. Consumed less electricity as compared to first generation computers

1.3.3.6. Faster than first generation computers

1.3.3.7. Still very costly

1.3.3.8. A.C. needed

1.3.3.9. Supported machine and assembly languages

1.3.4. Types Of Computer

1.3.4.1. IBM 1620

1.3.4.2. IBM 7094

1.3.4.3. CDC 6600

1.3.4.4. CDC 3600

1.3.4.5. UNIVAC 1108

1.4. 3rd Generation - 1965-1980

1.4.1. Technology

1.4.1.1. Integrated Circuit based

1.4.2. Inventor/invention

1.4.3. Main Features

1.4.3.1. More reliable in comparison to previous two generations

1.4.3.2. Smaller size

1.4.3.3. Generated less heat

1.4.3.4. Faster

1.4.3.5. Lesser maintenance

1.4.3.6. Still costly

1.4.3.7. A.C needed

1.4.3.8. Consumed lesser electricity

1.4.3.9. Supported high-level language

1.4.4. Types of computer

1.4.4.1. IBM-360 series

1.4.4.2. Honeywell-6000 series

1.4.4.3. PDP(Personal Data Processor)

1.4.4.4. IBM-370/168

1.4.4.5. TDC-316

1.5. 5th Generation - Present - Beyond

1.5.1. Technology

1.5.1.1. ULSI Technology

1.5.2. Inventor/invention

1.5.2.1. Artificial Intelligence

1.5.2.2. Age of Connectivity

1.5.3. Main Features

1.5.3.1. ULSI technology

1.5.3.2. Development of true artificial intelligence

1.5.3.3. Development of Natural language processing

1.5.3.4. Advancement in Parallel Processing

1.5.3.5. Advancement in Superconductor technology

1.5.3.6. More user friendly interfaces with multimedia features

1.5.3.7. Availability of very powerful and compact computers at cheaper rates

1.5.4. Types of computer

1.5.4.1. Desktop

1.5.4.2. Laptop

1.5.4.3. Notebook

1.5.4.4. Ultrabook

1.5.4.5. Chromebook

1.6. 4th Generation - 1980-Present

1.6.1. Technology

1.6.1.1. VLSI microprocessor based

1.6.2. Inventor/invention

1.6.2.1. Microprocessors *(VLSI)

1.6.2.2. Computers become even smaller & more powerful

1.6.2.3. GUIs, mouse, handheld devices

1.6.2.4. Open architecture

1.6.3. Main Features

1.6.3.1. VLSI technology used

1.6.3.2. Very cheap

1.6.3.3. Portable and reliable

1.6.3.4. Use of PC's

1.6.3.5. Very small size

1.6.3.6. Pipeline processing

1.6.3.7. No A.C. needed

1.6.3.8. Concept of internet was introduced

1.6.3.9. Great developments in the fields of networks

1.6.3.10. Computers became easily available

1.6.4. Types of computer

1.6.4.1. DEC 10

1.6.4.2. STAR 1000

1.6.4.3. PDP 11

1.6.4.4. CRAY-1(Super Computer)

1.6.4.5. CRAY-X-MP(Super Computer)

2. Basic Components of the Von Neumann Machine

2.1. Stored Program Concept

2.1.1. John von Neumann

2.1.2. A consultant on the ENIAC project

2.1.3. Proposed significant improvements over the ENIAC design

2.1.3.1. EDVAC

2.1.3.2. IAS

2.2. Von Neumann Architecture

2.2.1. THE PRINCIPLES

2.2.1.1. Data & instructions are both stored in main memory while being processed

2.2.1.2. Sequential processing of instructions

2.2.1.3. Binary data processing

2.2.1.4. Consists of CPU, memory, & I/O system

2.2.1.5. A more complete view of the computer system architecture that integrates interaction (human or otherwise) consists of:

2.2.1.5.1. CPU

2.2.1.5.2. RAM

2.2.1.5.3. i/o Devices

2.2.1.5.4. Mass storage

2.2.1.5.5. Interconecction Network

2.2.1.6. A central processing unit (CPU); it contains the control unit (CU), arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) and Interface unit

2.2.1.6.1. ALU: arithmetic/logic unit

2.2.1.6.2. CU: control unit

2.2.1.6.3. Interface unit

2.2.1.7. Memory

2.2.1.7.1. Short-term storage for CPU calculations, Holds both instructions and data of a computer program

2.2.1.8. Input devices

2.2.1.8.1. keyboard, mouse, scanner, punch cards

2.2.1.9. Output devices

2.2.1.9.1. monitor, printer, fax machine

2.2.1.10. Storage

2.2.1.10.1. hard drive, optical media, diskettes, magnetic tape

2.2.1.11. Bus

2.2.1.11.1. bundle of wires that carry signals and power between different components

2.2.1.12. In the von Neumann architecture, a small set of circuits can be driven to perform very different tasks, depending on the software program, which is executed.

3. Modern Computer System and Hardware in Brief

3.1. What is a Computer?

3.1.1. A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store the results for future use.

3.1.2. In brief, it is a device that receives, stores, and processes information

3.2. The Component Of Computer

3.2.1. Hardware

3.2.2. Software

3.3. Computer Hardware

3.3.1. Input Device

3.3.1.1. Allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer

3.3.2. Output Device

3.3.2.1. Hardware component that conveys information to one or more people

3.3.3. System Unit

3.3.3.1. Case that contains the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data

3.3.4. Storage Device

3.3.4.1. Records (writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from storage media

3.3.5. Communications Device

3.3.5.1. Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices

3.4. Computer Software

3.4.1. System Software

3.4.1.1. Operating System

3.4.1.2. Utility Program

3.4.2. Application Software

3.4.2.1. General purposed

3.4.2.2. Specialized

3.4.2.3. Apps

3.5. Networks and the Internet

3.5.1. A network is a collection of computers and devices connected together, often wirelessly, via communications devices and transmission media

3.5.2. The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals

3.6. Type Of Computers

3.6.1. Supercomputers

3.6.1.1. A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful computer

3.6.2. Mainframe Computer

3.6.2.1. A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously

3.6.3. Midrange Computer

3.6.3.1. A midrange computers or servers are computers with processing capabilities less powerful than a mainframe computer yet more powerful than a personal computer.

3.6.4. Personal Computer

3.6.4.1. A personal computer can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself.

3.6.4.2. There are five types of personal computers: desktops, laptops, tablets, smartphones, and wearables.