[Grammar] Chapter 1 - Word classes

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[Grammar] Chapter 1 - Word classes by Mind Map: [Grammar]   Chapter 1 - Word classes

1. [1] - Nouns

1.1. NL = Zelfstandig naamwoorden

1.1.1. countable nouns (telbare zelfstandige naamwoorden)

1.1.1.1. can take a/an and have a plural (meervoud)

1.1.1.1.1. table(s)

1.1.1.1.2. house(s)

1.1.1.1.3. computer(s)

1.1.2. uncountable nouns (niet-telbare zelfstandige naamwoorden)

1.1.2.1. Can't take a/an and they have no plural

1.1.2.1.1. music

1.1.2.1.2. milk

1.1.2.1.3. wood

1.1.3. proper nouns (eigennamen)

1.1.3.1. are names of people, place and things

1.1.3.1.1. London

1.1.3.1.2. Paul

1.1.3.1.3. Christmas

2. [2] - Articles

2.1. NL = Lidwoorden

2.1.1. definite article (bepaald lidwoord)

2.1.1.1. the

2.1.1.1.1. the woman

2.1.1.1.2. the university

2.1.1.1.3. the answer

2.1.1.1.4. the hour

2.1.1.1.5. the MP

2.1.2. indefinite article (onbepaald lidwoord)

2.1.2.1. before consonants (medeklinkers) = a

2.1.2.1.1. consonants = all other letters than vowels

2.1.2.2. before vowels (klinkers) = an

2.1.2.2.1. vowels = a, e, i, o, u.

3. [3] - Verbs

3.1. NL = Werkwoorden

3.1.1. He works in an office

3.1.1.1. Predicator (gezegde), doesn't need another verb

3.1.1.1.1. Different verbs =

3.1.2. I can/will help you

3.1.2.1. the verbs 'can' can 'will' need another verb (help) to form the predicator

3.1.2.1.1. A verb that can't form a predicator on it's own is called an auxiliary (hulpwerkwoord)

3.1.3. She is/feels/seems/looks unhappy

3.1.3.1. unhappy gives additional information about the subject 'she'. This additional information is called subject complement (naamwoordelijk deel van het gezegde)

3.1.3.1.1. A verb that connects the subject to the subject complement is called a =

4. [4] - Adjectives

4.1. NL = bijvoegelijk naamwoord

4.1.1. tells something about a noun. An important characteristic of an adjective is that you can make degrees of comparison (trappen van vergelijking)

4.1.1.1. EXAMPLES =

4.1.1.1.1. cold - colder - coldest

4.1.1.1.2. interesting - more interesting - most interesting

5. [5] - Adverbs

5.1. NL = bijwoord

5.1.1. refers to

5.1.1.1. a verb = she worked accurately

5.1.1.2. an adjective = It was extremely hot

5.1.1.3. another adverb = He worked extremely accurately

5.1.2. most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the adjective

5.1.2.1. some adverbs have the same form as the adjective

5.1.2.1.1. EXAMPLES =

5.1.3. some adverbs are not derived from adjectives

5.1.3.1. EXAMPLES =

5.1.3.1.1. always

5.1.3.1.2. never

5.1.3.1.3. often

5.1.3.1.4. soon

5.1.3.1.5. sometimes

6. [6] - Pronouns

6.1. NL = voornaamwoorden

6.1.1. 1. Personal pronouns (persoonlijke voornaamwoorden)

6.1.1.1. are often used as subject (onderwerp) or object (onderwerp) in a sentence

6.1.1.1.1. EXAMPLES =

6.1.2. 2. possessive pronouns (bezittelijke voornaamwoorden)

6.1.2.1. indicate positions

6.1.2.1.1. EXAMPLES =

6.1.3. 3. demonstrative pronouns (aanwijzende voornaamwoorden)

6.1.3.1. are used to point at something

6.1.3.1.1. EXAMPLES =

6.1.4. 4. interrogative pronouns (vragende voornaamwoorden)

6.1.4.1. are used in questions

6.1.4.1.1. EXAMPLES =

6.1.5. 5. relative pronouns (betrekkelijke voornaamwoorden)

6.1.5.1. refer to preceding persons and things

6.1.5.1.1. EXAMPLES =

6.1.6. 6. indefinite pronouns ( onbepaalde voornaamwoorden)

6.1.6.1. refer to indefinite (onbepaalde) persons or things

6.1.6.1.1. EXAMPLES =

6.1.7. 7. reflexive pronouns (wederkerende voornaamwoorden)

6.1.7.1. are pronouns ending in -self

6.1.7.1.1. EXAMPLES =

7. [7] - Conjunctions

7.1. NL = voegwoord

7.1.1. is a word which joins together words (1), word groups (2) and clauses (3-4)

7.1.1.1. (1) words

7.1.1.1.1. EXAMPLE =

7.1.1.2. (2) groups

7.1.1.2.1. EXAMPLE =

7.1.1.3. (3-4) clauses

7.1.1.3.1. A clause is a group of words containing a subject (onderwerp) and a verb

8. [8] - Prepositions

8.1. NL = voorzetsels

8.1.1. often indicate place, time, direction and are usually placed before a noun.

8.1.1.1. EXAMPLES =

8.1.1.1.1. in

8.1.1.1.2. into

8.1.1.1.3. on

8.1.1.1.4. at

8.1.1.1.5. from

8.1.1.1.6. of

8.1.1.1.7. under

8.1.1.1.8. over

8.1.1.1.9. above

8.1.1.1.10. below

8.1.1.1.11. behind

8.1.1.1.12. between

9. What is the translation?

9.1. (1) NOUNS

9.1.1. ZELFSTANDIG NAAMWOORD

9.2. (2) DEFINITE ARTICLE

9.2.1. BEPAALD LIDWOORD

9.3. (3) INDEFINITE ARTICLE

9.3.1. ONBEPAALD LIDWOORD

9.4. (4) PERSONAL PRONOUN

9.4.1. PERSOONLIJK VOORNAAMWOORD

9.5. (5) PASSESSIVE PRONOUN

9.5.1. BEZITTELIJK VOORNAAMWOORD

9.6. (6) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN

9.6.1. AANWIJZEND VOORNAAMWOORD

9.7. (7) INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN

9.7.1. VRAGEND VOORNAAMWOORD

9.8. (8) RELATIVE PRONOUN

9.8.1. BETREKKELIJK VOORNAAMWOORD

9.9. (9) INDEFINITE PRONOUN

9.9.1. ONBEPAALD VOORNAAMWOORD

9.10. (10) LEXICAL VERB

9.10.1. ZELFSTANDIG WERKWOORD

9.11. (11) PREPOSITION

9.11.1. VOORZETSEL

9.12. (12) ADVERB

9.12.1. BIJWOORD

9.13. (13) ADJECTIVE

9.13.1. BIJVOEGELIJK NAAMWOORD

9.14. (14) AUXILIARY

9.14.1. HULPWERKWOORD

9.15. (15) CONJECTION

9.15.1. VOEGWOORD

9.16. (16) LINK VERB

9.16.1. KOPPELWERKWOORD

9.17. (17) IRREGULAR VERB

9.17.1. ONREGELMATIG WERKWOORD

9.18. (18) PAST PARTICIPLE

9.18.1. VOLTOOID DEELWOORD

10. [Grammer] Chapter 2 - The tenses of 'be'

10.1. [1] The present tense (onvoltooid tegenwoordige tijd)

10.1.1. Refers to things and also animals: Where is my mobile? [ IT ] is over there

10.1.1.1. Short forms = I'm, you're, he's, she's it's, we're, you're, they're

10.1.1.1.1. Singular (enkelvoud)

10.1.1.1.2. Plural (meervoud)

10.2. [2] The past tense (onvoltooid verleden tijd)

10.2.1. I was (ik was)

10.2.2. you were (jij was)

10.2.3. she/he/it was (zij/hij/het was)

10.2.4. we were (wij waren)

10.2.5. you were (jullie waren)

10.2.6. they were (zij waren)

10.3. [3] The present future tense (tegenwoordige toekomende tijd)

10.3.1. The present future tense of 'be' in all persons is: will be.

10.3.1.1. In the first person singular and plural (I/we), both will and shall can be used, though shall is usually restricted to formal usage.

10.3.1.1.1. Short forms = I'll, we'll, etc.

10.4. [4] The past future tense (verleden toekomende tijd)

10.4.1. The past future tense of 'be' is would be in all persons

10.4.1.1. Short terms = I'd, you'd, etc.

10.4.1.1.1. I would be (ik zou zijn)

10.4.1.1.2. you would be (jij zou zijn)

10.4.1.1.3. she/he/it would be (zij/hij/het zou zijn)

10.4.1.1.4. we would be (wij zouden zijn)

10.4.1.1.5. you would be (jullie zouden zijn)

10.4.1.1.6. they would be (zij zouden zijn)

10.5. [5] The present perfect tense (voltooid tegenwoordige tijd)

10.5.1. The present perfect tense of 'be' is have/has + been.

10.5.1.1. Weak forms = I've been, he's been, etc.

10.5.1.1.1. I have been (ik ben geweest)

10.5.1.1.2. you have been (jij bent geweest)

10.5.1.1.3. she/he/it has been (zij/hij/het is geweest)

10.5.1.1.4. we have been (wij zijn geweest)

10.5.1.1.5. you have been (jullie zijn geweest)

10.5.1.1.6. they have been (zij zijn geweest)

10.5.1.2. Note = that the auxiliary (hulpwerkwoord) of the perfect tense is always [ HAVE ]. In Dutch, [ ZIJN ] is often used

10.6. [6] the past perfect tense (voltooid verleden tijd)

10.6.1. The past perfect tense of 'be' is had been in all persons

10.6.1.1. Weak forms = I'd been, you'd been, etc.

10.6.1.1.1. I had been (ik was geweest)

10.6.1.1.2. you had been (jij was geweest)

10.6.1.1.3. she/he/it had been (zij/hij/het was geweest)

10.6.1.1.4. we had been (wij waren geweest)

10.6.1.1.5. you had been (jullie waren geweest)

10.6.1.1.6. they had been (zij waren geweest)

10.7. [7] Would have been (zou/zouden zijn geweest)

10.7.1. Zou(den) geweest zijn = would have been

10.7.1.1. Het [ ZOU ] beter [ GEWEEST ZIJN ]

10.7.1.1.1. It [ WOULD HAVE BEEN ] better.

10.7.1.2. Er [ ZOUDEN ] minder klachten [ GEWEEST ZIJN ].

10.7.1.2.1. There [ WOULD HAVE BEEN ] fewer complaints